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Hittite/Hurrian Mythology REF 1.2

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Subject: Hittite/Hurrian Mythology REF 1.2
   by Christopher B. Siren[LINK] last modified Mar. 13th, 1998: added
   a bunch of information from the firest half of Hoffner.
   Mar. 29th, 1996: corrected some cross-reference links.
     * I. Who were the 'Hittites'?
     * II. What Deities did they worship?
          + A. Hittite and Hurrian deities.
          + B. Akkadian Imports.
          + C. Demons.
          + D. Mortals.
     * III. What was the Hittite cosmology and how did they perceive
       the structure of the universe?
     * IV. Source material.
I. Who were the 'Hittites'?

   During the second millennium B.C. the Indo-European people known
   as the Hittites ruled over the 'Land of Hatti', in central and
   eastern Anatolia, that peninsula which is modern Turkey. They had
   displaced the previous occupants, the non-Indo-European Hattians,
   and ruled from the city of Hattusas near the modern Boghazkoy in
   northern central Turkey, possibly as early as 1900 B.C. Much of
   the Cappadocian plateau was under their control through satellite
   kingdoms before 1800 B.C. and they enjoyed a thriving trade with
   the Assyrians. Around 1800 B.C. Anittas and his father Pitkhanas
   of Kussara sacked several Hittite cities, including Hattusas,
   though Anittas laid a curse upon that city and trade broke off
   until the founding of the Old Kingdom under King Labarnas around
   1680 B.C. He and his descendents greatly expanded the region of
   Hittite control, crossing the Taurus mountains and waging war on
   Syria and Assyria. King Mursilis (~1620-1590 B.C.), Labarnas'
   grandson by adoption, brought down the Old Kingdom of Babylon -
   Hamurabi's dynasty. This expanded realm, also stretching to
   Anatolia's west coast, proved to susceptible to internal power
   struggles. In 1525 B.C., Telepinus, last king of the Old Kingdom
   seized control and sacrificed some of the Western districts and
   all of the territory east of the Taurus mountains in favor of a
   more easily managed kingdom.
   The Hurrians occupied the land between the Hittites and Assyria,
   having descended from the mountains south of the Caspian Sea.
   They ruled the kingdom of Mitanni. In the late 15th century B.C.
   the Hittite empire's beginning is marked by an influx of Hurrian
   names into the royal family. Tudhalyas I (1420 B.C.) reunited
   Western Anatolia under Hittite rule, and retook Allepo but lost
   the Black Sea coast to the Kaska tribes. After some difficulty
   with the Mittani the Hittites resurged under King Suppilulimas
   around 1344-1322 taking a firmer hold on Syria. With Egypt, they
   dominated the lands of Canaan and the Levant during the 1200's.
   Their prosperity came to a sudden end when the invasion of the
   Sea Peoples coincided with increasing trouble from the Kaskas.
   While Hittite culture continued through about 700 B.C., the
   Empire was shattered into several kingdoms and pressures such as
   the growing Assyrian Empire helped keep it from uniting again.
   The Hittites were a patriarchal, highly agricultural society.
   They had rich iron deposits which they mined and traded with the
   Assyrians. They also used it for weaponry and were rather
   successful in the use of a three-man chariot. Through trade and
   conquest the languages and cultures of their neighbors seeped
   into Hittite society. Babylonian and Hurrian deities were
   worshiped along-side or assimilated with the native Hittite
   deities. This merging of cultures and free use of foreign
   languages is rather fortuitous. Parallel Hittite and Akkadian
   treaties and similar texts helped in cracking the Hittite
   hieroglyphic code. Unfortunately, while the ability to translate
   Hittite hieroglyphics has improved, the pronunciation of several
   Hittite ideograms, and hence their transcription into English,
   remains elusive. Often, as in the case with the Storm-god, we
   must resort to a descriptive name, or else use the appropriate
   Hurrian or Akkadian name.
     * One place to find out more about the Hittites is Hatti -
       Homeland of the Hittites
II. What Deities did they worship?

   The Hittites had an abundant number of local cult deities and
   sets of local pantheons. As the government became more
   centralized, particularly during the imperial period around 1400
   - 1200 B.C., there were efforts to equate many of these local
   deities and form a state pantheon. Such a pantheon was headed by
   the Weather-god/Storm-god, who also represented the mountains,
   and his consort - usually the earth goddess, who was also
   attached to the waters of rivers and the sea. The Hittites
   themselves write of 'the thousand gods of Hatti', and more than
   eight-hundred such names have been discovered. (Considerably
   fewer will be dealt with here.) The associated myths have both
   Hittite and Hurrian content, with the origin of many suspected to
   be Hurrian. The Kumarbis-Ullukummis myth is chief among the
   Hurrian tales and the Illuyankas stories and missing god myths of
   Telipinus and the missing Storm-god are thought to be more
   Hattic. There also exist fragments of a Hittite version of the
   Gilgamesh epic and many Akkadian deities were worshiped outright.
   Doubtless the Hatti left their mark in Hittite religion as well.
   You will notice that many of the names carry an optional 's' as a
   suffix, which comes from the nominative case ending for Hittite.
  A. Hittite and Hurrian deities.
          He was the king in heaven in olden days and Anus was the
          first among the gods. Anus served as his cupbearer for 9
          years before defeating him and dispatching him to under
          the earth.
   Anu(s) (Akkadian in origin)
          While Alalus was king in heaven, Anus was more powerful.
          He served as Alalus' cup bearer for nine years and then
          defeated him, dispatching him to under the earth. He took
          his seat on the throne and had Kumarbis as his cupbearer.
          Likewise, after nine years Kumarbis rebelled, chased Anus
          - who fled in the sky like a bird, and bit off and
          swallowed his phallus. In this act Anus had some revenge
          by impregnating Kumarbis with the Storm-god, the Aranzahus
          (Tigris) river, and Tasmisus. He then hid himself in
          heaven. He advised the Storm-god on the places where he
          might exit Kumarbis. After the Storm-god's birth, they
          plotted to destroy Kumarbis and, with his other children,
          apparently succeeded.
   Kumarbi(s) - 'the father of all gods' according to the Hurrians.
          He is sometimes equated with Enlil and Dagan. His city is
          Urkis. He thinks wise thoughts and carries a staff. He
          served as Anus's cup-bearer for nine years and then
          rebelled, chased Anus, and bit off and swallowed his
          phallus, thereby becoming impregnated with the Storm-god,
          the Aranzahus (Tigris) river, and Tasmisus. With that
          news, he spat out Aranzahus and Tasmisus of on Mount
          Kanzuras. The Storm-god begins to exit through Kumarbis's
          'tarnassus', causing him to moan in pain. He asks Ayas to
          give him his son to devour, which he does. Ayas has 'poor'
          magic worked on him and his 'tarnassus' is secured, so the
          Storm-god exits through his 'good place' instead. He is
          then presumably defeated by the Storm-god, Anus, and his
          During a plot to overthrow the Storm-god, he lay with a
          Rock as if it were a woman. He instructs Imbaluris, his
          messenger to send a message to the Sea, that Kumarbis
          should remain father of the gods. The Sea hosts a feast
          for him and later Kumarbis' Rock gives birth to
          Ullikummis. Kumarbis announces that his son will defeat
          the Storm-god, his city Kummiya, his brother Tasmisus and
          the gods from the sky. He charges Imbaluris to seek out
          the Irsirra deities to hide Ullikummis from the Sun-god,
          the Storm-god, and Ishtar.
                He is Kumarbis' messenger. He is sent to warn the
                Sea that Kumarbis' must remain the father of the
                He is Kumarbis' vizier
   Hannahanna(s) (Nintu, Mah) - the mother of all the gods.
          She is associated with Gulses. After Telepinu disappears,
          the Storm-god complains to her. She sends him to search
          himself and when he gives up, she dispatches a bee,
          charging it to purify the god by stinging his hands and
          feat and wiping his eyes and feet with wax.
          She recommends to the Storm-god that he pay the Sea-god
          the bride-price for the Sea-god's daughter on her wedding
          to Telipinu.
          Apparently she also disappears in a fit of anger and while
          she is gone, cattle and sheep are stifled and mothers,
          both human and animal take no account of their children.
          After her anger is banished to the Dark Earth, she returns
          rejoicing. Another meeans of banishing her anger is
          through burning brushwood and allowing the vapor to enter
          her body.
          After Inara consulted with her, she gave her a man and
          land. Soon after, Inara is missing and when Hanna hanna is
          informed thereof by the Storm-god's bee, she apparently
          begins a search with the help of her Female attendant a.
          She appears to consult with the Sun-god and the War-god,
          but much of the text is missing.
   Upelluri (Ubelluris)
          Similar to Atlas, this giant carries the world on his
          shoulders. The olden gods built the earth and heaven upon
          him though he did not notice, even when those two were
          separated with a cleaver. On the direction of Kumarbis'
          messenger Imbaluris, the Issira deities place Ullikummis
          on his right shoulder where the child grows. Ea interviews
          him, in search of Ullikummis and Upelluri admits to a
          small pain on his shoulder, although he can't identify
          which god is causing it.
   Storm/Weather-god (Hurrian's Teshub, Taru, Luwian's Tarhun(t) -
          'The Conqueror'), 'The king of Kummiya', 'King of Heaven,
          Lord of the land of Hatti'.
          He is chief among the gods and his symbol is the bull. As
          Teshub he has been pictured as a bearded man astride two
          mountains and bearing a club. He is a god of battle and
          victory, especially when the battle is with a foreign
          power. As Taru, he is the consort of Wurusemu. He was the
          child of Anus and Kumarbis - conceived along with Tasmisus
          and the Aranzahus (Tigris) river when Kumarbis bit off and
          swallowed Anus' phallus. He is, however, considered Ea's
          son in the myth of Ullikummis. He is informed by Anus of
          the possible exits from Kumarbis, and tries to exit
          through Kumarbis's 'tarnassas', causing him great pain.
          With the 'tarnassas' blocked, he exits through Kumarbis'
          'good place'. He plots with Anus, Tasmisus, and Aranzhus
          to destroy Kumarbis, and apparently succeeds seizing
          kingship in heaven.
          He sent rain after the fallen Moon-god/Kashku when he fell
          from heaven.
          Alerted to the imminent arrival of the Sun-god, who in
          some myths is his son, he has Tasmisus prepare a meal for
          their guest and listens to his report about the sudden
          appearance of the giant Ullikummis. He and Tasmisus then
          leave the kuntarra and are led to Mount Hazzi by his
          sister, Ishtar, where they behold the monstrous creature.
          He looks upon Kumarbis' son with fear and Ishtar chides
          him. Later, emboldened, he has Tasmisus prepare his bulls
          and wagon for battle, and has him call out the
          thunderstorms, lightning and rains. Their first battle
          resulted in his incomplete defeat. He dispatches Tasmisus
          to his wife, Hebat, to tell her that he must remain in a
          'lowly place' for a term. When Tasmisus returns, he
          encourages the Storm-god to seek Ea in the city Abzu/Apsu
          and ask for the 'tablets with the words of fate' (Tablets
          of Destiny? 'me'?). After Ea cleaves off Ullukummis' feet,
          he spurs Tasmisus and the Storm-god on to battle the
          crippled giant. Despite the diorite man's boasting, the
          Storm-god presumably defeats him.
          He fought with the Dragon Illuyankas in Kiskilussa and was
          defeated. He called the gods for aid, asking that Inaras
          prepare a celebration. She does so and when the dragon and
          his children have gorged themselves on her feast, the
          mortal Hupasiyas binds him with a rope. Then the
          Storm-god, accompanied by the gods, sets upon them and
          destroys them.
          In another version of that myth, he looses his eyes and
          heart to Illuyankas after his first battle. He then
          marries a poor mortal woman and marries their son to
          Illuyankas daughter. He has the son ask for his eyes and
          heart. With their return, he attacks the dragon again.
          When his son sides with Illuyankas, the Storm-god kills
          them both.
          When his son, Telepinus, is missing he despairs and
          complains to the Sun-god and then to Hannahannas, who
          tells him to search for him himself. After searching
          Telepinus' city he gives up.
          In other versions of this myth, it is the Storm-god who is
          missing. One is almost exactly the same, and in another,
          he journeys to the Dark Earth in his anger, and is
          returned with the help of his mother - here
          Wuruntemu/Ereshkigal/the Sun-goddess of Arinna.
          He sends Telipinu to recover the Sun-god who had been
          kidnapped by the Sea-god. The Sea-god is so intimidated
          that he gives Telipinu his daughter in marriage but
          demands a bride-price from the Storm-god. After consulting
          with Hannahanna, he pays the price of a thousand sheep and
          a thousand cattle.
          He notices his daughter, Inara, is missing and sends a bee
          to Hannahanna to have her search for her.
        Seris (Serisu)
                This is one of the bulls sacred to the Storm-god. In
                preparation for battle, the Storm-god has Tasmisus
                anoint his horns with oil and drive him up Mount
                Imgarra with Tella and the battle wagon.
        Tella (Hurris)
                This is another bull sacred to the Storm-god. In
                preparation for battle, the Storm-god has Tasmisus
                plate his tail with gold and drive him up Mount
                Imgarra with Seris and the battle wagon.
        Aranzahas - The Tigris river deified.
                A child of Anus and Kumarbis, he was the brother of
                the Storm-god and Tasmisus, spat out of Kumarbis'
                mouth onto Mount Kanzuras. Later he colludes with
                Anus and the Storm-god to destroy Kumarbis.
                A child of Anus and Kumarbis, he is conceived along
                with the Storm-god and Aranzahus. The brother of the
                Storm-god and Aranzahus, he was spat out of Kumarbis
                upon Mount Kanzuras. Later he colludes with Anus and
                the Storm-god to destroy Kumarbis. He serves as the
                Storm-god's attendant.
                He spies the Sun-god approaching and informs the
                Storm-god that this visit bodes ill. At the
                Storm-god's command he has a meal set up for their
                visitor. After the Sun-god's tale, he and the
                Storm-god depart and are met by Ishtar, who takes
                them to Mt. Hazzi near Ugarit, where they can see
                Ullikummis. The Storm-god has him take his bulls up
                Mt. Imgarra and prepare them for battle. He is also
                ordered to bring forth the storms, rains, winds, and
                lightning. After their defeat, he is dispatched by
                the Storm-god to Hebat, to tell her that he must
                remain in a 'lowly place' for a term. He returns and
                encourages the Storm-god to seek Ea in the city
                Abzu/Apsu and ask for the 'tablets with the words of
                fate' (Tablets of Destiny? 'me'?). After Ea cleaves
                off Ullukummis' feet, he spurs Tasmisus and the
                Storm-god on to battle the crippled giant.
                He is a warrior god and probably the brother of the
   Hebat (Hurrian name) (Hepit, Hepatu)
          The matronly wife of the Storm-god. She is sometimes
          depicted standing on her sacred animal, the lion. After
          the Storm-god and Astabis' failed attacks on Ullikummis,
          the giant forced her out of her temple, causing her to
          lose communication with the gods. She frets that
          Ullikummis may have defeated her husband and expresses her
          concern to her servant Takitis, charging him to convene
          the assembly of the gods and bring back word of her
          husband. Presumably she is brought word of his defeat.
          Tasmisus visits her in the high watchtower, telling her
          that the Storm-god is consigned to a 'lowly place' for a
          length of time. She is the mother of Sharruma.
        Wurusemu, (Wuruntemu?), 'Sun Goddess of Arrina', 'mistress
                of the Hatti lands, the queen of heaven and earth',
                'mistress of the kings and queens of Hatti,
                directing the government of the King and Queen of
                This goddess is later assimilated with Hebat. She
                made the cedar land. She is the primary goddess in
                Arrina, with Taru as her consort. She is a goddess
                of battle and is associated with Hittite military
                victory. She is the mother of the Storm-god of
                Nerik, and thereby possibly associated with
                Ereshkigal. She aids in returning him from the
        Sharruma (Hurrian name), 'the calf of Teshub'
                The son of Teshub and Hebat, this god is symbolized
                by a pair of human legs, or a human head on a bull's
                body. He is later identified with the Weather-god of
                Nerik and Zippalanda.
                He is Hebat's servant. After Hebat was driven from
                her temple he is told of her concern for her husband
                and charged with convening the assembly of the gods
                and returning with word of her husband's fate.
                She is the daughter of the Storm-god and the
                Sun-goddess of Arinna. She has influence with her
                She is the granddaughter of the Storm-god and the
                Sun-goddess of Arinna.
   Telepinu(s) 'the noble god'
          An agricultural god, he is the favorite and firstborn son
          of the Storm-god. He 'harrows and plows. He irrigates the
          fields and makes the crops grow.' (Gurney p. 113) He flies
          into a rage and storms off, losing himself in the steppe
          and becoming overcome with fatigue. With his departure,
          fertility of the land, crops and herds disappears and
          famine besets man and god. Hannahannas's bee finds him,
          stings his hands and feet, and wipes his eyes and feet
          with wax, purifying him. This further infuriates him, and
          he wrecks further havoc with the rivers and by shattering
          houses and windows. Eventually, the evil and malice is
          removed through magic by Kamrusepas, but not before
          Telepinus thunders with lightning. Telepinus returns home,
          restoring fertility and tending to the life and vitality
          of the royal family. His prosperity and fertility is
          symbolized by a pole suspending the fleece of a sheep. In
          other versions of this myth, the Storm-god or the Sun-god
          and several other gods are missing instead.
          He is asked by his father to recover the Sun-god from the
          Sea-god, and so intimidates the Sea-god that he is given
          his daughter as a bride.
   Ullikummi(s), the diorite man
          He is born of Kumarbis and the Rock. This god is made
          entirely of diorite. He was born to be used as a weapon to
          defeat the Storm-godand his allies. Kumarbis had him
          delivered to the Irsirra deities to keep him hidden from
          the Storm-god, the Sun-god, and Ishtar. After the Irsirra
          deities presented him to Ellil, they placed him on the
          shoulder of Upelluri where he grows an acre in a month.
          After fifteen days he grows enough so that he stands waist
          deep in the sea when the Sun-god and he notice each other.
          Alerted by the Sun-god, the Storm-god eventually prepares
          for battle atop Mount Imgarra, yet their first battle
          results in an incomplete victory. He drives Hebat from her
          temple, cutting off her communication with the other gods.
          Astabis leads seventy gods on attack against him,
          attempting to draw up the water from around him, perhaps
          in order to stop his growth. They fall into the sea and he
          grows to be 9000 leagues tall and around, shaking the
          heavens, the earth, pushing up the sky, and towering over
          Kummiya. Ea locates him and cuts off his feet with the
          copper knife that separated the heaven from the earth.
          Despite his wounds he boasts to the Storm-god that he will
          take the kingship of heaven. Presumably, he is
          none-the-less defeated.
   Sun-god (of Heaven)
          Probably an Akkadian import, this god is one of justice
          and is sometimes the king of all gods. An ally of the
          Storm-god, he notices the giant Ullikummis in the sea and
          visited the Storm-god, refusing to eat until he reports
          his news. After he has done so, the Storm-god proclaims
          that the food on the table shall become pleasant, which it
          does, and so the Sun-god enjoys his meal and returns to
          his route in heaven.
          When Telepinus disappears, bringing a famine, he arranges
          a feast, but it is ineffective in assuaging their hunger.
          At the Storm-god's complaint, he dispatches an eagle to
          search for the god, but the bird is unsuccessful. After
          the bee discovers Telepinus, he has man perform a ritual.
          In another version of the missing god myth, he is one of
          the missing gods. He keeps several sheep. At the end of
          the day, he travels through the nether-world.
          He was kidnapped by the Sea-god and released when Telipinu
          came for him.
          In a longer version of that story, the Sea-god caught him
          in a net, possibly putting him into a Kukubu-vessel when
          he fell. During his absence, hahhimas (Frost) took hold.
                He is the Sun-god's shepherd.
   Moon-god (Hurrian Kashku)
          He fell upon the 'killamar', the gate complex, from heaven
          and disappeared. Storm-god/Taru rain-stormed after him,
          frightening him. Hapantali went to him and uttered the
          words of a spell over him. While known to bestow ill
          omens, he can be appeased by sheep sacrifice.
   The Sea, the Waters
          She is told by Imbaluris that 'Kumarbis must remain father
          of the gods!'. Struck with fear by this message, she makes
          ready here abode and prepares to act as hostess for a
          feast for Kumarbis. This feast may have served as a
          meeting of Mother-goddesses who delivered Kumarbis' child
          by the Rock, Ullikummis.
   The Sea-god
          He quarreled and kidnapped the Sun-god of Heaven. When
          Telipinu came to recover the Sun-god, the Sea-god was so
          intimidated that he also gave him his daughter. he later
          demanded a bride-price for her of the Storm-god, and was
          eventually given a thousand cattle and a thousand sheep.
          In another version, he caught the Sun-god in a net as he
          fell, and may have sealed him in a Kukubu-vessel, allowing
          Hahhimas (Frost to take hold of most of the other gods.
          He questions the fire in its role in one of Kamrusepa's
          healing spells.
          Daughter of the Storm-god and goddess of the wild animals
          of the steppe. After the Storm-god's initial defeat by
          Illuyankas, she follows his request to set up a feast. She
          recruits Hupasiayas of Zigaratta, to aid in revenge on
          Illuyankas, by taking him as a lover. She then sets about
          luring Illuyankas and his children to a feast. After the
          dragon and his children gorge themselves on her meal,
          Hupasiayas binds him with a rope. Then the Storm-god sets
          upon them and defeats them.
          She then gives Hupasiayas a house on a cliff to live in,
          yet warns him not to look out the window, lest he see his
          wife and children. He disobeys her, and seeing his family
          begs to be allowed to go home. Gurney speculates that he
          was killed for his disobedience.
          She consults with Hannahanna, who promises to give her
          land and a man. She then goes missing and is sought after
          by her father and Hannahanna with her bee.
   Illuyankas - the Dragon.
          He defeated the Storm-god in Kiskilussa. Later he was
          lured from his lair with his children by a well dressed
          Inaras with a feast. After they were too engorged to get
          into their lair again, the Storm-god, accompanied by the
          other gods, killed him.
          In another version of the myth, he defeated the Storm-god
          and stole his eyes and heart. Later, his daughter married
          the son of the Storm-god. Acting on the Storm-god's
          instruction, his son asked for the eyes and heart. When
          these were returned to him, the Storm-god vanquished
          Illuyankas, but slew his son as well when the youth sided
          with the dragon.
          The ritual of his defeat was invoked every spring to
          symbolize the earth's rebirth.
          He is a serpent who loved Ishtar.
   Irsirra deities
          These gods who live in the dark earth are charged by
          Kumarbis through Imbaluris to hide Ullikummis from the sky
          gods, the Sun-god, the Storm-god, and Ishtar. They are
          also charged with placing the child on the shoulder of
          Upelluri. Later they accept the child and deliver it to
          Ellil, before placing it on Upelluri's right shoulder.
          He took his place at the Moon-god's side when he fell from
          heaven on the gate complex and uttered a spell.
   Kamrusepa(s) (Katahziwuri)
          She is the goddess of magic and healing. She witnessed and
          announced the Moon-god's fall from heaven on to the gate
          She is the goddess of magic and healing. After Telepinus
          has been found, yet remains angry, she is set to cure him
          of his temper. She performs an elaborate magical ritual,
          removing his evil and malice.
          In another tablet, she performs the spell of fire, whic
          removes various illnesses, changing them to a mist which
          ascends to heaven, lifted by the Dark Earth. The Sea-god
          questions the fire on its role.
   Astabis (Zamama, Akkadian Ninurta)
          He is a Hurrian warrior god. After the Storm-god's first
          attack on Ullikummis is unsuccessful, he leads seventy
          gods in battle wagons on an attack on the diorite giant.
          They try to draw the water away from him, perhaps in order
          to stop his growth, but they fall from the sky and
          Ullikummis grows even larger, towering over the gate of
          He is a minor god who, properly attended to, removes
          This god's symbol is the stag. He is associated with rural
          She is the chief goddess of the Neo-Hittites, she became
          Cybebe to the Phrygians and Cybele to the Romans.
          He is a god of pestilence. A festival was held for him
          every autumn.
          He is a god who can protect travelers, possibly by causing
          them to be invisible.
          He is the chief god of the town of Kastama, held in
          greater regard there than the Storm-god, possibly gaining
          such influence through drawing lots with the other gods.
                She is the wife of Zashapuna.
                She is the concubine of Zashapuna.
          One of the deities who sat under the Hawthorn tree
          awaiting the return of Telipinus.
          One of the deities who sat under the Hawthorn tree
          awaiting the return of Telipinus.
          One of the deities who sat under the Hawthorn tree
          awaiting the return of Telipinu. (S)he? also sat under th
          ippiyas tree when Hannahanna found the hunting bag.
          They were among the deities who sat under the Hawthorn
          tree awaiting the return of Telipinu. In one myth, they
          and the Mother-goddesses are missing.
          One of the deities who sat under the Hawthorn tree
          awaiting the return of Telipinu.
   Tutelary-deity, (Sumerian Lamma)
          One of the deities who sat under the Hawthorn tree
          awaiting the return of Telipinu.
          A deity involved in returning the lost Storm-god of Nerik.
   Hahhimas (Frost)
          When the Sea-god captures the Sun-god, he takes hold of
          the other gods and of the land's plants and animals,
          paralyzing them. He is half-brother to Hasamili's brothers
          and spares them from his grip.
  B. Akkadian Imports:
          See section A.
   Antu (See Assyro-Babylonian Antu)
          Anu's female counterpart, imported to the Hitties through
          the Hurrians.
   Ellil (See Assyro-Babylonian Ellil)
          He is presented with Ullikummis by the Irsirra deities and
          declares that the child will bring the mightiest battles
          and an awesome rival to the Storm-god. Later, Ea and
          presumably the Storm-god present before him a case against
          Kumarbis' for his creation of Ullikummis. He counters with
          Kumarbis' good record of worship and sacrifice and is in
          turn countered with Ea's testimony describing Ullikummis.
   Ninlil (See Assyro-Babylonian Ninlil
          Ellil's wife. She was imported by way of the Hurrians.
   Lelwanis (Lilwani, Ereshkigal, sometimes assimilated with
          Ishtar), 'Sun of the Earth'
          Goddess of the earth and the nether-world, appeasement of
          her through sheep sacrifices helps remove threats from
          evil omens.
          This goddess is the mother of the Storm-god. She plays a
          role in returning him from the underworld by opening the
          gates of the Dark Earth.
   Ayas (Ea)
          He is the keeper of the 'old tablets with the words of
          fate' (Tablets of Destiny? 'me'?). The Ullikummis myth has
          him as the father of the Storm-god.
          He attends Kumarbis and fetches that god's son to be
          devoured as a means of releaving Kumarbis pains from the
          Storm-god. He advises Kumarbis to have experts work 'poor'
          magic to aid him in his distress, bringing bulls and
          sacrifices of meal. This magic helps secure Kumarbis's
          He is prevailed upon by the Storm-god following his defeat
          by Ullikummis. He and presumably the Storm-god present a
          case against Kumarbis' for his creation of Ullikummis
          before Ellil. Rebutting Ellil's defense that Kumarbis is
          well behaved regarding worship and sacrifices, Ea
          proclaims that Ullikummis 'will block off heaven and the
          gods holy houses.' He seeks out Upelluri, and after
          interviewing him, locates Ullukummis feet on Upelluri's
          shoulder. He charges the olden gods to deliver the copper
          knife with which they severed heaven from earth, in order
          to cut through Ullukummis' feet. He then spurs Tasmisus
          and the Storm-god on to fight the crippled giant.
   Tapkina(Hurrian) (Damkina)
          Ea's wife, imported from the Akkadians by way of the
   Shaushka (Hurrian) (Ishtar)
          She takes the form of a winged female standing on a lion.
          She spies her brothers, the Storm-god and Tasmisus,
          leaving the kuntarra following word of the appearance of
          Ullikummis. She leads them by hand, up Mount Hazzi, from
          which they can view the giant. When the Storm-god is vexed
          and fearful at the site of Kumarbis' son, she chides him.
          Later, she takes up her galgalturi/harp and sings to the
          blind and deaf Ullikummis, but her folly is exposed to her
          by a great wave from the sea, who charges her to seek out
          her brother who is yet to be emboldened to the inevitable
          She was loved by the serpent Hedammu.
                Shaushka's attendant.
                Shaushka's attendant.
  C. Demons
   Various rituals were performed to call upon demons for protection
   or to drive away baneful deities summoned by sorcerers.
          Properly propitiated with ritual, libation, and goat
          sacrifice, this demon drives away evil sickness.
          Properly propitiated with ritual and the sacrifice of a
          buck, this demon staves off sickness and grants long,
          healthy life.
  D. Mortals
          He is a resident of Ziggaratta. He is recruited by Inaras
          to aid in defeating Illuyankas. He agrees to her plan
          after elliciting her promise to sleep with him. When
          Illuyankas and his children are gorged on Inaras's feast,
          he ties them up for the Storm-god to kill. he is set up in
          a house by Inaras with the instructions not to look out
          the window while she is away, lest he see his family. He
          does, and begs to go home. Here the text is broken and
          some researches assume that he is killed.
III. Cosmology and the structure of the universe.

   I haven't found as much about this as I would like:
   The olden gods built heaven and earth upon Upelluri. They had a
   copper knife which they used to cleave the heaven from the earth,
   after which they stored it in ancient storehouses and sealed them
   up - only to open them and retrieve it for use on Ullikummis.
   Kuntarra house
          The house of the gods in heaven.
   The Dark Earth, i.e. the Underworld.
          It has an entrance with gates. It holds bronze or iron
          palhi-vessels with lead lids. That which enters them,
          perishes within and doesn't return. Telipinu and
          Hannahanna's anger is banished there.
IV. Source material:

     * Goetze, Albrecht "Hittite Myths, Epics, and Legends", Ancient
       Near East Texts Relating to the Old Testament, ed. James
       Pritchard, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1955. This
       has been my primary source for the texts of the Hittite myths
       and prayers.
     * Gurney, O. R. The Hittites, Penguin Books, New York, 1990.
       Gurney's work is a solid overview of Hittite history,
       culture, religion, and mythology.
     * Hoffner, Harry Hittite Myths, Scholars Press, Atlanta,
       Georgia, 1990. Intended to be a more idiomatic translation,
       Hoffner's work also includes material more recent than Goetz.
       I am replacing that material from Goetz with which this
     * S.H.Hooke Middle Eastern Mythology, Penguin Books, New
       York,1963. Hooke takes a comparative and summary approach to
       Sumerian, Babylonian, Canaanite, Hittite, and Hebrew
       mythological material.
     * Laroche, Emmanuel, articles within Mythologies Volume One,
       Bonnefoy, Yves (compiler), The University of Chicago Press,
       Chicago, 1991. This handful of topically focused articles
       provides depth in some areas of Hittite and Hurrian religion
       but lacks an overall picture as Bonnefoy's work was designed
       for an encyclopedic format.
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