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The Assyro-Babylonian Mythology FAQ version 1.7html

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Subject: The Assyro-Babylonian Mythology FAQ version 1.7html
   by Christopher B. Siren (Nov. 1994) You're missing a picture of an envelope
   last revised (October 6th, 1995)
   changes since last revision: lengthened Bahamut answer; added a
   couple external links; made changes for move to UNH.
   The latest copy of this FAQ should be available via anonymous ftp
   at: at /pub/usenet/news.answers/assyrbabyl-faq
     * I. Overview (including regional history)
     * II. So these are just like the Sumerian deities right?
     * III. Who were the gods and heroes of the Babylonians?
          + A. The older gods
          + B. The younger Annunaki and Igigi
          + C. The chthonic gods
          + D. The heroes and monsters
     * IV. What about the Underworld and Heaven and all that?
     * V. Hey! I read that Cthulhu is really some Babylonian or
       Sumerian god, how come he's not there under Kutu?
     * VI. So, in AD&D, Tiamat is this five-headed evil dragon, but
       they got her from the Enumma Elish, right? What about her
       counterpart, Bahamut?
     * VII. Where did you get this info and where can I find out
I. Overview (including regional history)

   First, some definitions: Mesopotamia, in general, refers to the
   area of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Assyria, was the
   northern portion of Mesopotamia, who's capital was Ashur, and
   whose reach included the major city of Nineveh. Sumer refers to
   the southern delta region, whose primary cities included Ur,
   Uruk, and Eridu. Akkad was a region north of Sumer which included
   the area around modern Baghdad as well as the ancient sites of
   Babylon, Kish, and Nippur.
   The political organization of the region was basically a
   collection of city-states. Sargon of Agade (2371-16 BC) united
   the regions of Sumer and Akkad. His descendants eventually lost
   control of the empire due to pressures from the Hurrians, the
   Hittites, and other invaders, not to mention internal pressures.
   In the south Sumer again gained ascendancy, dominated by the
   city-state Ur. Sumer then collapsed under the Amorites around
   2000 BC. They established many sub- kingdoms including Assyria
   and Babylon. Assyria attained a brief period of dominance under
   Shamshi-Adad (1813-1781 BC) but was soon superseded by Babylon
   under Hammurabi (1792-50BC) who established what once were
   thought to be the first written law codes (more recent
   discoveries include law codes from a couple centuries prior to
   Hammurabi). The first Babylonian dynasty collapsed in 1595BC when
   the Hittites sacked its eponymous capital. Assyria had been taken
   over by the Mitanni but established its independence in the mid
   14th century BC. BC. Under Tukulti-Ninurta I Assyria dominated
   the entire fertile crescent in the late 13th century. By the time
   of Tiglath-Pileser I, about a century later it had directed more
   of its attention westwards towards Palestine and lost control of
   Babylon and the south. Slowly Assyria began to expand again,
   reaching its apex between 750 and 650 BC under the rulers
   Tiglath-Pileser III, Sargon II, Senacherib, and
   Ashuribanipal(668-627 BC). The empire collapsed from invaders
   with Nineveh falling to Nabopalasar of Babylon in 612 BC and the
   empire dying in 605 BC. Meanwhile, Babylon had been reasserting
   itself. Under Nebuchadnezzar Babylon expanded westward, taking
   Jerusalem in 586 BC. Babylon fell in the mid-540's to Cyrus the
   Persian whose empire lasted until the late 300's BC when
   Alexander of Macedon established his empire and renamed the area
   "Mesopotamia". (See also Shawn Bayern's History Babylonia)
II. So these guys were just like the Sumerian Deities right?

   Well some of them were mostly like the Sumerian Deities, but as
   you might expect, they have their own kinks and differences. In
   general the following relationships apply:
       Sumerian name       Babylonian Name

       An                  Anu
       Ki/Ninhursag        Aruru, Mammi
       Enlil               Ellil
       Enki                Ea
       Nanna               Sin
       Inanna              Ishtar
       Utu                 Shamash
       Ninlil              Mullitu, Mylitta

   This is not a cut and dry relation. Sumerian and Babylonian names
   appear in the same Babylonian document, sometimes referring to
   the same entity. In addition, there are numerous local variations
   of these deities names which, in the next section, such
   'optional' names appear in parentheses after the more prevalent
III. Who were the gods and the heroes of the Babylonians then?

  A. The Older (genealogically) Gods:
          The underworld ocean, masculine. The begetter of the skies
          and the earth. The father of Lahmu, Lahamu, Anshar and
          Kishar. He could not quell the noise of them or their
          children. He colluded with his vizier Mummu to silence the
          gods and allow Tiamat to rest, after Tiamat rejected the
          idea. Ea found out about his plans, cast a sleeping spell
          on him and killed him.
          Primeval Chaos, bearer of the skies and the earth, mother
          of Lahmu, Lahamu, Anshar, and Kishar. The clamor of the
          younger gods disturbed her, but she continued to indulge
          them. When Apsu and Mummu suggested that they kill the
          younger gods, she grew furious, calmed down and rejected
          the plan. Her restless subservient gods goaded her into
          action after Apsu is slain. They prepared to wage war
          against the other gods. As Mother Hubur, the underworld
          river, who fashions all things, she bore giant snakes with
          venom for blood, and cloaked dragons with a godlike
          radiance yet with a terrible visage, for the war. She
          rallied a horned serpent, a mushussu-dragon, a lahmu-hero,
          a ugallu-demon, a rabid dog, a scorpion-man, umu-demons, a
          fish-man, a bull-man, and eleven others underneath her
          champion, Qingu. She gave Qingu the Tablet of Destinies to
          facilitate his command and attack.
          Marduk came with his host to attack her. Qingu's strategy
          initially confuses him, and Tiamat tried to enspell him,
          hurling jibes at him. She was rebuffed and incited into
          single combat with Marduk. She continued to cast her spell
          and Marduk nets her, and throws a wind at her. She tried
          to swallow it and was undone - distended, shot, sliced in
          two and cut in the heart. Her crushed skull heralded her
          death, and half of her skin was used to roof up the sky.
          Her eyes became the sources of the Tigris and Euphrates
   Lahmu and Lahamu
          - 'the hairy one' or 'muddy' they have three pairs of
          curls, and are naked except for a triple sash. They were
          the first children of Tiamat and Apsu. Kappa was sent to
          fetch them by Anshar, to help send off Marduk on his fight
          with Tiamat and be rallied to his side. They complied and
          helped find a princely shrine for Marduk
          - 'whole sky' He is the father of Anu and the child of
          Tiamat and Apsu. He is often paired with Kishara, and his
          qualities were assimilated with Ashur. When Ea learned of
          Tiamat's planned war, Anshar tried to stir him into
          attacking her first, but was rebuffed. He turned to Anu
          and sent him on a peace mission to Tiamat, but Anu
          returned unsuccessful. An assembly was convened and Marduk
          came forth at Ea's urging, promising to deliver Tiamat's
          defeated body to Anshar's feet. He required of the
          assembly a promise that he would be given the leadership
          of the pantheon after he is victorious. He had Kappa
          gather Lahmu, Lahamu, and the other gods together to send
          off Marduk on his fight and rally them to his side. When
          they arrive they help find a princely shrine for Marduk.
          - 'whole earth' , She is the mother of Anu and the child
          of Tiamat and Apsu.
          - Sumerian for "heaven", a sky god, father and king of the
          gods. He is the son of Anshar and Kishar. He lives in the
          third heaven. The Eanna in Uruk was dedicated both to him
          and consort. His first consort was Antu. They produced the
          Anunnaki - the underworld gods, and the utukki - the seven
          evil demons. His second consort was Innina (Ishtar). He is
          a god of monarchs and is not friendly to the common
          people. He is a "King of the Igigi". He is assigned the
          sky as his domain in 'Atrahasis'. His 'kishru's (shooting
          stars) have awesome strength. He has the ability that
          anything he puts into words, becomes reality. He is
          Niudimmud's (Ea's) father.
          He calls Dumuzi and Gizzida speak on Adapa's behalf.
          He agrees to send the Bull of Heaven after Gilgamesh on
          Ishtar's behalf, if she has made sure that the people of
          Uruk are properly provisioned for seven years. He decrees
          that either Gilgamesh or Enkidu must die for the slaying
          of Humbaba and the Bull of Heaven. He sends Kakka to
          Kurnugi to tell Ereshkigal to send a messenger to receive
          a gift from him.
          When Anzu stole the Tablet of Destinies from Ellil, he
          called for one of the gods to slay Anzu and thereby
          greatly increase his reputation. He gave Marduk the four
          winds to play with. He made a whirlwind and a flood wave
          and stirred up Tiamat on purpose. When Tiamat's
          retaliation for Apsu's death was discovered, Anshar sent
          him on a peace mission to her, but he returned
          unsuccessfully. He helps form a princely shrine for Marduk
          prior to his battle with Tiamat, and gives him the
          Anu-power of decreeing fates, such that his word is law.
          He and Earth father the Sebitti. He gives them fearsome
          fates and powers and puts them at Erra's command, to aid
          in killing noisy, over populous people and animals. (See
          also the Hittite Anus
          Symbol: sacred shine surmounted by the divine horned cap.
          Sacred number: 60 Astrological region: heavenly equator
          Sacred animal: the heavenly Bull
          - Sumerian for "the earth", she is a colorless being who
          was the first consort of Anu. They produced the Anunnaki -
          the underworld gods, and the utukki - the seven evil
          demons. She was replaced by Isthar (Inanna) who is
          sometimes her daughter.
   Aruru (Ninmah, Nintu, Ninhursaga, Belet-ili, Mami)
          -She is the mother goddess and was responsible for the
          creation of man with the help of Enlil or Enki. She is
          also called the womb goddess, and midwife of the gods. On
          Ea's advice, she acted on his direction and mixed clay
          with the blood of the god Geshtu-e, in order to shape and
          birth seven men and seven women. These people would bear
          the workload of the Igigi. She also added to the creation
          of Gilgamesh, and, at Anu's command, made Enkidu in Anu's
          image by pinching off a piece of clay, throwing it into
          the wilderness, and birthing him there. Ea called her to
          offer her beloved Ninurta as the one who should hunt Anzu.
          She does so. (See also the Hittite Hannahannas
          - the maker or mother of fate.
          - one of "the pure goddesses", Ea's mother, associated
          with fresh water.
  B. The Anunnaki, Igigi, and the Younger Gods
   Ellil (Enlil) - Sumerian for "wind/storm-god".
          Initially the leader of the pantheon, he has since
          relinquished his spot to Anu. Possible slayer of
          Enmesharra and avenger of his father Anu. His role in this
          was upplanted by Marduk by the Babylonians. He is a
          short-tempered god who was responsible for the great
          flood. He is the creator of mankind. He is thought to
          favor and help those in need. He guards the "tablets of
          destiny", which allow him to determines the fate of all
          things animate or inanimate. They was once stolen from him
          by a Zu, a storm- bird (a bird with some human qualities).
          They were recovered and Zu faced judgment by Ellil. His
          consort is Ninlil, his chief-minister is Nusku. He was
          also god of the lands and of the earth. He is a "King of
          the Anunnaki". He was their counselor warrior. He and his
          people receive the earth in 'Atrahasis'. His temple is
          When the Igigi rebelled against him, and surrounded his
          house and called for Anu. After man was created in
          response to the Igigi's grievances, he grew weary of their
          noise and released several disasters upon them, after each
          one, man recovered and then he released a new one. The
          disasters included disease, flood, drought, and the great
          flood. He appointed Humbaba to guard the cedar forest and
          terrify mankind. He decreed that Enkidu must die for the
          slaying of the Bull of Heaven and Humbaba. He does not
          answer Gilgamesh's plea to restore Enkidu to life. He
          found a throne for Etana to rule from in Kish. He
          appointed Anzu as the guardian of his bath chamber, but
          while bathing, Anzu stole from him the Tablet of
          Destinies, and his Ellil-power. Ninurta, with Ea's advise
          and Belet-ili's urgings slew Anzu and recovered the Tablet
          of Destinies. (See also the Hittite Ellil
          Symbol: Seven small circles representing the Pleiades.
          Sacred number: 50
          Astrological region: north of "the way of Anu" ie. 12
          degrees north of the equator.
   Ea (Enki, Nudimmud)
          - god of the waters. He is in charge of the bolt which
          bars the sea. He knows everything. He is the "Lord of
          Wisdom" and "Lord of Incantations". When he speaks, of a
          thing, it will be made. He is the son of Anu, but
          sometimes he is the son of Anshar. Zaltu as a complement
          to Ishtar. He discovered the plot of Apsu and Mummu, put
          Apsu under a sleeping spell, and slew him and put Mummu
          into a daze, tied him up, and slew him. He then named his
          quarters Apsu, the underworld ocean that supports the
          world. He and Damkina produced Bel and Marduk. (Bel is
          likely to be another name for Marduk.)
          He learned that Tiamat was planning a war of revenge
          against the gods. His father Anshar tries to spur him into
          making the first attack against Tiamat, but Ea rebuffs
          him. When Anu's peace mission fails, he urges Marduk into
          He suggests the method of creating man, in response to the
          heavy workload of the Igigi. As mankind's patron, he is
          the instructor of all crafts, writing, building, farming,
          and magic. He advises mankind when other gods would do
          them harm. He granted Adapa understanding, to teach
          mankind. When Adapa used this knowledge to break the wing
          of the South Wind, he cursed him and told him to complain
          of Dumuzi and Gizzida's absence to Anu. While in Anu's
          court, he advises Adapa not to eat the bread of eternal
          life (lest he forfeit his life on earth). He refuses to
          flood mankind for Ellil. Eventually he accedes, but only
          after advising Atrahasis to build a boat in which to
          weather the flood.
          He tells Nergal to allow Enkidu's spirit to visit with
          Gilgamesh. When Ea is informed of Ishtar's imprisonment in
          the Underworld, he creates 'His appearance is bright' to
          stand at Ereshkigal's gate and mellow her mood and have
          her swear an oath by the great gods. He instructs Nergal
          on how to build the gift throne for Ereshkigal, and hides
          him with spring water to hide him from Namtar after he
          returned from the underworld.
          When Anu and the gods could not locate a volunteer to kill
          Anzu, he told the Igiggi that he would pick one. He
          instructs Belet-ili/Mami to send Ninurta to slay Anzu and,
          through Sharur advises Ninurta on how to defeat the
          creature. (See also the Canaanite Heyan aka
          Kothar-u-Khasis and the Hittite Ayas
          Symbol: Ram's head; goat-fish (a goat's head on a fish's
          Sacred number: 40
          Astrological region: 12 degrees south in the sky (includes
          Pisces and Aquarius)
          - the craftsman god. He is attendant to Ea and Apsu's
          vizier. He is very fond of Apsu and colludes with him to
          disperse the younger gods when they disturb Tiamat, even
          after Tiamat rejects the plan. Ea found out about his
          plan, enspelled him and tied him up.
          - Tiamat's battle leader. He is promoted and enhanced to a
          leading position from among the ranks. Tiamat places the
          Tablet of Destinies into his possession, giving him the
          Anu-power, such that his word is law and effects reality.
          He gives his army fire-quenching breath and paralyzing
          venom. His battle strategy initially confuses Marduk. He
          is defeated by Marduk and counted among the dead gods.
   Sin (Nannar)
          - moon god, son of Enlil. He has a beard of Lapis Lazuli
          and rides a winged bull. His consort is Ningal. He is the
          father of Shamash. He does not answer Gilgamesh's plea to
          restore Enkidu to life.
          Symbol: Crescent Sacred number: 30 Sphere of influence:
          the moon, calendars, vegetation, cattle fertility
          - the consort of Sin, the mother of Shamash
   Ishtar (Ishhara, Irnini, Inanna)
          She is Anu's second consort, daughter of Anu and Antum,
          (sometimes daughter of Sin), and sometimes the sister of
          Ereshkigal. She is the goddess of love, procreation, and
          war. She is armed with a quiver and bow. Her temples have
          special prostitutes of both genders. She is often
          accompanied by a lion, and sometimes rides it. The Eanna
          in Uruk is dedicated both to her and Anu. As Irnini, she
          has a parakku (throne-base) at the cedar mountain. She
          loved Tammuz in her youth, although he spends half the
          year in the nether world wailing. She loved a lion, a
          stallion, a shepherd, all of whom she required great
          sacrifice from and abandoned. She loved Ishullanu, a
          gardener who offered her fruit, but was taken aback when
          she revealed herself to him, so she turned him into a
          Cylinder Seal of Ishtar (Image from the Oriental Institute
          at U. Chicago) After Gilgamesh cleans himself up,
          following his defeat of Humbaba, she asks him to be her
          lover and husband, and offers him many gifts and the
          homage of earthly rulers and kingdoms. She is rejected,
          both because of her godly nature, and as a fair-weather
          lover. Ishtar asks Anu to send the Bull of Heaven to kill
          Gilgamesh, and he agrees.
          She determines to go to the Underworld. She threatened to
          smash the gate and raise the dead so that they would eat
          and outnumber the living unless the gatekeeper would open
          it for her. She holds the great keppu-toy (a whipping
          top). She is allowed in by the gate keeper, who takes her
          through seven gates to Ereshkigal's realm. By Ereshkigal's
          rites, she is stripped of items of clothing as she passes
          through each of the gates: first her crown, then her
          earrings, then her necklace, then her tudditu (breast
          pins), then her belt of birthstones, then her wrist and
          ankle bangles, and finally her garment. While in the
          underworld, no creatures engaged in acts of procreation.
          She was kept in Egalgina and brought forth by Namtar after
          being sprinkled with the water of life, and after 'His
          appearance is bright' has been cursed. She is led back out
          through the gates, given back her accouterments, and
          released in exchange for Dumuzi (Tammuz). (See also the
          Hittite Shaushka and the Canaanite Astarte and Anat
          Symbol: an eight or sixteen-pointed star Sacred number: 15
          Astrological region: Dibalt (Venus) and the Bowstar
          (Sirius) Sacred animal: lion, (dragon)
          - the barmaid, a manifestation of Ishtar who dwells at the
          lip of the sea, beyond which is the Land of Life, where
          Utnapishtim lives. She speaks with Gilgamesh. She wears a
   Shamash (Babbar, Utu)
          - the sun god, the son of Sin and Ningal. He rises from
          the mountains with rays out of his shoulders. He enters
          and exits the underworld through a set of gates in the
          mountain, guarded by scorpion-people. He travels both on
          foot and in a chariot, pulled by fiery mules. He upholds
          truth, and justice. He is a lawgiver and informs oracles.
          Nergal is a corrupt aspect of his nature.
          He loves Gilgamesh, hates evil and instigates Gilgamesh's
          quest against Humbaba, guiding him and receiving prayers
          from him along the way. He tries to intercede to Ellil on
          Enkidu's behalf, but is unsuccessful. He rebukes Enkidu
          for cursing the Stalker and the temple prostitute for
          bringing him out of the wild.
          In Kish, the eagle and the serpent swore an oath to
          Shamash that they would not overstep the limits of
          Shamash. The eagle broke the oath and ate the eggs of the
          serpent. Shamash, 'whose net is as wide as earth', told
          the serpent how to serve the eagle justice. The serpent
          lured the eagle with a bull carcass and captured him. The
          eagle requested to be spared and the serpent refused,
          saying that Shamash's punishment would fall on him if he
          did not carry it out. He cut the eagle's wings and left
          him to die in a pit. The eagle prayed to Shamash for
          mercy, and Shamash refused to help personally, but sent
          Etana to help the eagle. He agreed to help Etana's
          infertility problem if Etana would help the eagle. See
          also the Hittite Sun-god and the Canaanite Shapshu.
          Symbol: Solar disk with a four point star inside with rays
          coming from between the points. A winged disk.
          Sacred Number: 20
          - Shamash's consort
          - Anshar and Anu's vizier, who is sent to Kurnugi to
          deliver Ereshkigal the message that Anu wishes to deliver
          a gift to her via one of her messengers. Anshar sends him
          to round up Lahmu and Lahamu to send off Marduk for his
          battle with Tiamat and rally them to his side.
          - Ellil's consort. (see also Sumerian Ninlil.)
          - the god of fire and Ellil's vizier.
          - the god of fire, Anunitu (Antu)'s son. He despairs and
          will not attack Anzu after Anzu has stolen the Tablet of
          Destinies from Ellil.
   Ishum (Hendursanga - 'lofty mace')
          - He is the god of fire, and is adept at using weapons. He
          lights the way in front of Erra and the Sebitti. He
          advises Erra against attacking Marduk or his people in
          Babylon. When Erra takes Marduk's seat, Ishum persuades
          him against destroying Babylon, finally appeasing him by
          promising that the other gods would acknowledge themselves
          as his servants.
          - Ellil's doorkeeper in Nippur.
          - Ea's lover, mother of Bel and Marduk (note Bel is likely
          to be another title for Marduk).
   Nash (Nanshe)
          - one of "the pure goddesses", Ea's daughter. Her cult
          center is Sirara near Lagash.
          - "strife", goddess created by Ea to complement Ishtar.
   Ninurta (shares some characteristics with Ningrisu)
          - Chamberlain of the Anunnaki, the war god, the champion
          of the land. He is the child of Ellil and Mami. He was
          born in Ekur, Ellil's temple in Ekur. He is responsible
          for some small scale irrigation. He has a bow and arrow,
          sometimes they are poisoned. He also carries the mace,
          Sharur, which can act as a messenger between Ninurta and
          other beings (notably Ea). He can marshal the Seven of
          Battle, who can generate whirlwinds.
          He bound the Mountain of Stones in his fury, conquered the
          Anzu with his weapon and slew the bull-man inside the Sea.
          (Dalley p. 204).
          After the Tablet of Destinies was stolen, Belit-ili, at
          Ea's advice, instructed him to kill Anzu. Initially his
          assault was futile, but Sharur relayed advise from Ea to
          him, which, when it was carried out allowed him to slay
          Anzu in a great onslaught. He recovered the Tablet of
          Destinies for Ellil. Nissaba performs a purification
          ceremony on him and he receives the following new names
          and shrines: Duku - 'holy mound' in Sumerian, Hurabtil -
          an Elamite god, Shushinak - patron god of the Elamite city
          Susa, Lord of the Secret, Pabilsag - god of the
          antediluvian city Larak, Nin-Azu - god of Eshunna,
          Ishtaran - god of Der, Zababa -warrior god of Kish,
          Lugalbanda - Gilgamesh's father, Lugal-Marada - patron god
          of Marad, Warrior Tishpak - similar to Nin- Azu, Warrior
          of Uruk, Lord of the Boundary-Arrow, Panigara - a warrior
          god, and Papsukkal - vizier of the great gods.
          - 'the great wild cow', the great queen, Gilgamesh's
          mother and Lugalbanda's mate. She is wise, 'knows
          everything' and interprets Gilgamesh's dreams. She offers
          incense and drink to Shamash and questions his decision to
          send Gilgamesh against Humbaba. When doing so, she wears a
          circlet on her head and an ornament on her breast. She
          adopts Enkidu prior to the quest against Humbaba.
          - son of Ea and Dumkina. He supplants the other Babylonian
          deities to become the central figure of their pantheon. He
          is a "King of the Igigi" He often works with and asks
          questions of his father. He has fifty names many of which
          are those of other deities whose attributes he usurped. He
          was of proud form and piercing stare, born mature,
          powerful, and perfect and superior. He has four eyes, four
          ears, and emits fire from his mouth when he speaks. He is
          also gifted in magic.
          Anu gave him the four winds to play with. When Anu's peace
          mission to Tiamat fails, Ea urges him into action. He goes
          before Anshar and the divine assembly and declares that he
          will defeat Tiamat and lay her head at his feet, but that
          the assembly must promise that he should be the one to fix
          fates and more or less assume the role of the leader of
          the pantheon. Anshar, Lahamu, and Anu find him a shrine
          and Anu instills upon him the Anu-power in which, his word
          decrees fate. He is proclaimed king and invested with the
          scepter, throne, and staff-of- office. He is given an
          unfaceable weapon, the flood-weapon. He takes a bow and
          arrow and mace. He puts lightning in front of him,
          marshals his winds, makes a net to encircle Tiamat, fills
          his body with flame. He rides his storm-chariot driven by
          Slayer, Pitiless, Racer, and Flyer, poison-toothed,
          tireless steeds. He had a spell on his lips and an anti-
          toxin in his hand. He led the gods to battle. (P.251-252
          Dalley) Qingu's strategy confused him. Tiamat tried to
          enspell him and wheedled at him. Marduk reproaches her and
          calls her out for single combat. She looses her temper and
          they fight. He unleashes his weapons at her, distended her
          body with winds, shot her in the belly with an arrow,
          split her in two and slit her heart. He defeats the rest
          of her forces and retrieves the Tablet of Destinies.
          He smashed Tiamat's skull to herald her death. He made
          half of her skin the roof of the sky. He leveled Apsu,
          measured it and established numerous shrines for many of
          the gods. He set up stands for the gods, constructed the
          heavens and regulated the year, giving Shamash some
          dominion over the months and the year. He made the Tigris
          and Euphrates rivers from Tiamat's eyes and made mountains
          from her udders. He smashed the weapons of Tiamat's army
          and put images of them at the gates to the underworld. He
          set up his temple at Esharra. and his seat in Babylon. The
          gods honored him as king. He put blood and bones together
          as and made early man to bear the work of the gods, as in
          Atrahasis. For Qingu's part in the war he was made to
          provide the blood for the creation of man. He divided the
          Anunnaki and placed 300 to guard the sky, and six hundred
          to dwell in heaven and earth. He had them create Babylon
          building the Esagalia temple and a high ziggurat. Anshar
          gave him many new names: 1. Asarluhi, 2. Marduk, 3. The
          Son, The Majesty of the Gods, 4. Marukka, 5. Mershakushu,
          6. Lugal-dimmer-ankia (King of heaven and earth), 7. Bel,
          8. Nari-lugal-dimmer-ankia, 9. Asarluhi, 10. Namtila, 11.
          Namru, 12. 'Asare, 13. Asar-alim, 14. Asar-alim-nuna, 15.
          Tutu, 16. Zi-ukkina, 17. Ziku, 18. Agaku, 19. Shazu, 20.
          Zisi, 21. Suhrim, 22. Suhgurim, 23. Zahrim, 24. Zahgurim,
          25. Enbilulu, 26. Epadun, 27. Gugal, 28. Hegal, 29.
          Sirsir, 30. Malah, 31. Gil, 32. Gilima, 33. Agilima, 34.
          Zulum, 35. Mummu, 36. Zulum-ummu, 37. Gizh- numun-ab, 38.
          Lugal-ab-dubur, 39. Pagal-guena, 40. Lugal-Durmah, 41.
          Aranuna, 42. Dumu-duku, 43. Lugal-duku, 44. Lugal-shuanna,
          45. Iruga, 46. Irqingu, 47. Kinma, 48. Kinma, 49.
          E-sizkur, 50. Addu, 51. Asharu, 52. Neberu, 53. Enkukur.
          He becomes a firm lawgiver and judge who, when angered is
          not stoppable. Later he becomes somewhat negligent and
          Erra challenges him by preparing to attack his people in
          Babylon. He responds to the challenge by saying that he
          already killed most of the people in the flood and would
          not do so again. He also states that no- one would be in
          control of things if he got off of his throne to work up a
          flood, to which Erra volunteers to run things from
          Marduk's throne.
   Bel (Canaanite Baal)
          - Cleverest of the clever and sage of the gods, he is the
          child of Ea and Dumkina. This name (meaning 'lord') is
          most likely referringto Marduk.
   Ashur (A-sir, Arusar, A-shar, Assur)
          - god of Assyria and war. He is a "King of the Igigi"
          Symbol: winged disk enclosing upper body, while he shoots
          an arrow.
          - Shamash's servant.
          - vizier of the Great Gods, son of Sin. While Ishtar was
          in the Underworld, he became gloomy and informed Sin and
          Ea of this plight.
          - the weather god's servant.
   Adad (the Canaanite Hadad, the Hurrian Teshub, the
          Canaanite/Egyptian Resheph, Rimmon)
          - a storm god, Anu's son. He holds a lightning bolt in his
          right hand and an axe in his left. He is partially
          responsible for the flood. He despairs and will not attack
          Anzu after Anzu has stolen the Tablet of Destinies from
          Sacred number: 6
          Sacred animal: Bull
          - Anu and Ishtar's son. He despairs and will not attack
          Anzu after Anzu has stolen the Tablet of Destinies from
          - the carpenter god. He carries the pure axe of the sun.
          - creator of god and man, goldsmith god.
          - 'lord strong-arm' patron god of smiths. He chews copper
          and makes tools.
  C. The Anunnaki and other chthonic deities and demons
   Ereshkigal (Allatu)
          - the supreme goddess of the underworld. Nergal is her
          consort. She is often considered Ishtar's sister. When
          angered, her face grows livid and her lips grow black.
          She doesn't know why Ishtar would visit her, but she
          allows her in, according to the ancient rites. She
          instructs Namtar to release his diseases upon Ishtar. When
          'His appearance is bright' tries to get her to swear an
          oath, she curses him. She has Namtar release Ishtar in
          exchange for Dumuzi.
          Anu sends Kakka to her with a message and then sends
          Nergal to give her a throne upon which she is to sit and
          give judgment. She offers Nergal food, drink, a foot bath,
          and entices him with her body. Eventually he succumbs and
          they sleep with each other for seven days. She is enraged
          when he wishes to leave. She sends Namtar to heaven to
          request that Anu, Ellil, and Ea send Nergal to her as one
          of the few favors she has ever had. If they do not, she
          will raise the dead and they will eat and outnumber the
          living. Nergal is brought back. In some versions of the
          myth, Nergal takes control of Namtar's attendant demons
          and grabs Ereshkigal by the hair. In this position she
          proposes marriage to him. In both versions they are
          married. (See also Sumerian Ereshkigal and the Hittite
          tablet-scribe of the underworld. She kneels before
          - the Fate-Cutter, Ereshkigal's messenger and vizier, the
          herald of death. He commands sixty diseases, which are
          grouped by the part of the body which they affect.
          Offerings to him may stave off diseases. He takes Ishtar
          back out of the Underworld at Ereshkigal's command. He
          acts as her messenger to Anu.
          - the cattle god, he resides in the underworld, in
          Ereshkigal's court.
   Nergal (Erragal, Erra, Engidudu
          - 'lord who prowls by night') -, the Unsparing, god of the
          underworld, husband of Ereshkigal, lover of Mami. As Erra
          he is a hunter god, a god of war and plague. He is
          submissive to Ea. He can open the doorposts to the
          underworld to allow the passage of a soul.
          He achieved his post by refusing to stand before an
          address of Namtar. When Ereshkigal called him to be
          punished, he dragged her off of her throne by the hair,
          and threatened to decapitate her. She offered him the
          position as her consort and he accepted.
          He is an evil aspect of Shamash. He allows Enkidu's spirit
          to visit Gilgamesh at the behest of Ea. He is sometimes
          the son of Ea. Prior to his first journey to the
          underworld, he builds a chair of fine wood under Ea's
          instruction to give to Ereshkigal as a gift from Anu. He
          is advised not to take part of the food, drink and
          entertainment offered there. He is tempted by Ereshkigal
          and eventually succumbs, sleeping with her for seven days.
          He then takes his leave, angering her. The gatekeeper lets
          him out and he climbs the stairway to heaven. He hides
          from Namtar in heaven, but is discovered and returns to
          the underworld to marry Ereshkigal. In some versions, on
          the way back to the Underworld, he seizes control of
          Namtar's attendant demons and grabs Ereshkigal by the
          hair. In this position she offers marriage.
          He commands the Sebitti, seven warriors who are also the
          Pleadies, they aid in his killing of noisy, over-populous
          people and animals. He rallies them when he feels the urge
          for war, and calls Ishum to light the way. They prefer to
          be used in war instead of waiting while Erra kills by
          He regards Marduk as having become negligent and prepares
          to attack his people in Babylon. He challenges Marduk in
          Esagila in Shuanna/Babylon. Marduk responds that he
          already killed most of the people in the flood and would
          not do so again. He also states that he could not run the
          flood without getting off of his throne and letting
          control slip. Erra volunteers to take his seat and control
          things. Marduk takes his vacation and Erra sets about
          trying to destroy Babylon. Ishum intervenes on Babylon's
          behalf and persuades Erra to stop, but not before he
          promises that the other gods will acknowledge themselves
          as Erra's servants. (See also Sumerian Nergal
          - plague god, underling of Nergal
          - Underworld god
          - a dread female demon also known as 'she who erases'.
          - god of writing and wisdom
          - the guardian of the first gate of the underworld.
          - a guardian of the gate of heaven; a god of the
   Tammuz (Dumuzi, Adonis)
          the brother and spouse to Ishtar, or the lover of her
          youth. He is a vegetation god. He went into the underworld
          and was recovered through the intervention of Ishtar. He
          is sometimes the guardian of heaven's gates and sometimes
          a god of the underworld. He is friends with Ningizzia. He
          is exchanged for Ishtar in the Underworld. He guards the
          Gate of Anu with Gizzida.
   Belili (Geshtinanna)
          - Tammuz/Dumuzi's sister, 'the one who always weeps', the
          wife of Ningishzida.
   Gizzida (Gishzida)
          - son of Ninazu, consort of Belili, doorkeeper of Anu.
   Nissaba (Nisaba)
          - cereal grain harvest goddess. Her breast nourishes the
          fields. Her womb gives birth to the vegetation and grain.
          She has abundant locks of hair. She is also a goddess of
          writing and learned knowledge. She performs the
          purification ceremony on Ninurta after he has slain Anzu
          and is given his additional names and shrines.
   Dagan (Ugaritic for 'grain')
          - chthonic god of fertility and of the Underworld. He is
          paired with Anu as one who acknowledges directives and
          courses of action put forth in front of the assembly of
          the gods. (See also the Canaanite Dagon
          - (means 'pimple') an underworld god. Ellil used him as a
          messenger to Ninurta
          - god of submission
          - boatman to Utnapishtim
          - canal- controller of the Anunnaki.
          - 'ear', god whose blood and intelligence are used by Mami
          to create man.
  D. Demigods, heroes, and monsters:
   Adapa (Uan)
          - the first of the seven antediluvian sages who were sent
          by Ea to deliver the arts of civilization to mankind. He
          was from Eridu. He offered food an water to the gods in
          Eridu. He went out to catch fish for the temple of Ea and
          was caught in a storm. He broke the South Wind's wing and
          was called to be punished. Ea advised him to say that he
          behaved that way on account of Dumuzi's and Gizzida's
          absence from the country. Those gods, who tended Anu's
          gate, spoke in his favor to Anu. He was offered the bread
          and water of eternal life, but Ea advised against his
          taking it, lest he end his life on earth.
   Atrahasis and Ut-napishtim,
          Like the Sumerian Ziusudra (the Xisuthros of Berossus) or
          Noah from the Pentateuch, were the long-lived survivors of
          the great flood which wiped out the rest of humanity. In
          Atrahasis' case, Ellil had grown tired of the noise that
          the mass of humanity was making, and after a series of
          disasters failed to eliminate the problem, he had Enki
          release the floodgates to drown them out. Since Enki had a
          hand in creating man, he wanted to preserve his creation,
          warned Atrahasis, and had him build a boat, with which he
          weathered the flood. He also had kept his ear open to Enki
          during the previous disasters and had been able to listen
          to Enki's advice on how to avoid their full effects by
          making the appropriate offerings to the appropriate
          deities. He lived hundreds of years prior to the flood,
          while Utnapishtim lives forever after the flood.
          Utnapishtim of Shuruppak was the son of Ubaratutu. His
          flood has no reason behind it save the stirrings of the
          hearts of the Gods. As with Atrahasis, Utnapishtim is
          warned to build an ark by Ea. He is also told to abandon
          riches and possessions and seek life and to tell the city
          elders that he is hated by Enlil and would go to the
          watery Abyss to live with Ea via the ark. He loads gold,
          silver, and the seed of all living creatures into the ark
          and all of his craftsmen's children as well. After Ea
          advises Enlil on better means to control the human
          population, (predators, famine, and plague), Enlil makes
          Utnapishtim and his wife immortal, like the gods.
          - a warrior-king and, with Ninsun, the progenitor of
          Gilgamesh. He is worshipped, being Gilgamesh's ancestor,
          by Gilgamesh as a god.
   Gilgamesh (possibly Bilgamesh) and Enkidu
          The son of the warrior-king Lugalbanda and the wise
          goddess Ninsun, Gilgamesh built the walls of the city
          Uruk, and the Eanna (house of An) temple complex there,
          dedicated to Ishtar. He is two-thirds divine and one-third
          human. He is tall and a peerless warrior. He is the king
          and shepherd of the people of Uruk, but he was very wild,
          which upset his people, so they called out to Anu. Anu
          told Aruru to make a peer for Gilgamesh, so that they
          could fight and be kept occupied, so she created the
          wild-man Enkidu. Enkidu terrorizes the countryside, and a
          Stalker, advised by his father, informs Gilgamesh. They
          bring a love- priestess to bait Enkidu. She sleeps with
          him, and educates him about civilization, Gilgamesh and
          the city. Gilgamesh dreams about Enkidu and is anxious to
          meet him. Enkidu comes into the city Gilgamesh is on his
          way to deflower the brides in the city's "bride-house" and
          the two fight. They are evenly matched and become friends.
          Gilgamesh decides to strengthen his reputation by taking
          on Humbaba, Enlil's guardian of the forest. Enkidu
          accompanies Gilgamesh and they spend much time in
          preparation. Eventually they find the monster and defeat
          Ishtar offers to become Gilgamesh's lover, but Gilgamesh
          insults her, saying that she has had many lovers and has
          not been faithful to them. Ishtar asks Anu to send the
          Bull of Heaven to punish Gilgamesh, and he does. Gilgamesh
          and Enkidu defeat the creature, but Enkidu falls ill and
          dies, presumably because the gods are unhappy that he
          helped kill Humbaba and the Bull of Heaven.
          Gilgamesh morns Enkidu and decides to visit Utnapishtim,
          the only human who does not die. He goes to the mountains
          of Mashu and passes by the guardian scorpion-demons into
          the darkness. It becomes light as he enters the Garden of
          the Gods and he finds Siduri the Barmaid, to whom he
          relates his quest. She sends him to cross the waters of
          death and he confronts the boatman, Urshanabi. They cross
          and Gilgamesh speaks with Utnapishtim. Utnapishtim
          recounts the tale of the flood and challenges Gilgamesh to
          remain awake for six days and seven nights. He fails, but
          Utnapishtim's wife urges him to reveal to Gilgamesh a
          rejuvinative plant. Gilgamesh takes it, but looses it to a
          serpent before returning to Uruk.
          Another tablet of the Babylonian Gilgamesh story exists,
          which is similar to the Sumerian version of the tale.
          Enkidu volunteers to enter the underworld to recover
          Gilgamesh's pukku and mikku (drum and throwing stick).
          Gilgamesh warns him of the proper etiquette for the
          underworld, lest Enkidu be kept there. Enkidu prepares to
          enter the underworld, and is dressed, scented and bade
          good-bye. The Earth seizes him and Gilgamesh weeps. He
          pleads for Enkidu's sake to Enlil, Sin, and finally to Ea.
          Ea tells Nergal to let Enkidu's ghost escape the
          underworld and tell Gilgamesh about it. He tells Gilgamesh
          of the dead which he has seen there, of those who are
          cared for and those who aren't, indicating the sort of
          judgment and ritual associated with the afterlife and
          - the human taken to the sky by an eagle. He was the king
          of Kish. Ishtar and the Igigi searched for a king for
          Kish. Ellil found a throne for Etana and they declared him
          the king. He was pious an continued to pray to Shamash,
          yet he had no son. Shamash told him to where to find the
          eagle with the cut wings, who would find for him the plant
          of birth. He found the eagle, fed it, and taught it to fly
          again. Not being able to find the plant, the eagle had
          Etana mount on his back and they journeyed to Ishtar,
          mistress of birth. On flying up to heaven, Etana grew
          scared at the height and went down. Then after some
          encouraging dreams tried to ascend to heaven on the eagle
          again. They succeeded. Etana had a son, Balih.
   Humbaba (Huwawa)
          - this monster was appointed by Ellil to guard the cedar
          forest, which is in fact one large tree, the home of the
          gods, and terrify mankind. 'His shout is the storm-flood,
          his mouth, fire, his breath is death.' (Gardner & Maier p.
          105) He has seven cloaks with which to arm himself. There
          is a gate and a path in the cedar mountain for Humbaba to
          walk on. Gilgamesh and Enkidu attack. Humbaba pleads for
          mercy, Enkidu argues against mercy, and Enkidu and
          Gilgamesh decapitate him.
   The Bull of Heaven
          - this creature was created by Anu to kill Gilgamesh at
          Ishtar's behest. At its snorting, a hole opened up and 200
          men fell into it. When it fights Enkidu and Gilgamesh, it
          throws spittle and excrement at them. It is killed and set
          as an offering to Shamash.
          - a demonic being with lion paws and face and eagle talons
          and wings. It was born on the mountain Hehe. It's beak is
          like a saw, its hide as eleven coats of mail. It was very
          powerful. Ellil appointed him to guard his bath chamber.
          He envied the Ellil-power inherent in Ellil's Tablet of
          Destinies and stole it while Ellil was bathing. With the
          Tablet of Destinies, anything he puts into words becomes
          reality. He takes advandtage of this by causing Ninurta's
          arrows to never reach their target. However, once Ea's
          advice reached Ninurta, Anzu was slain by the hero's
   aqrabuamelu (girtablilu)
          - scorpion-man, the guardians of the gates of the
          underworld. Their "terror is awesome" and their "glance is
          death". They guard the passage of Shamash. They appraise
          Gilgamesh and speak with him.
          - gods (mostly of the earth). The sky Anunnaki set the
          Igigi to digging out the rivers
          - gods (mostly of the heavens) They are given the task of
          digging riverbeds by the Anunnaki. They rebelled against
          - the seven warrior gods led by Erra; in the sky they are
          the Pleadies. They were children of Anu and the
          Earth-mother. Anu gave them fearsome and lethal destinies
          and put them under Erra's command. They prefer to exercise
          there skills instead of letting Erra stay in the cities
          with his diseases.
   Utukki - demons
          Muttabriqu - Flashes of Lightning
          Sarabda - Bailiff
          Rabishu - Croucher
          Tirid - Expulsion
          Idiptu - Wind
          Bennu - Fits
          Sidana - Staggers
          Miqit - Stroke
          Bel Uri - Lord of the Roof
          Umma - Feverhot
          Libu - Scab
          gallu-demons - can frequently alter their form.
          umu-demons - fiercely bare their teeth.
IV. What about the Underworld and Heaven and all that?

   For a more general discussion of this, take a look at the
   Underworld and Cosmology sections in the Sumerian FAQ, for the
   particulars, see below.
   The Igigi and the Anunnaki met in heaven in Ubshu-ukkinakku, the
   divine assembly hall. The Gilgamesh epic has the gods dwelling in
   the cedar mountain. They had their parakku, throne-bases, there.
   It was an enormous tree at the cedar forest and was guarded by
   Humbaba. There is a stairway up to heaven from the underworld.
   As for the underworld Kurnugi (Sumerian for 'land of no return').
   It is presided over by Ereshkigal and Nergal. Within the house of
   Irkalla (Nergal), the house of darkness, the house of Ashes, no
   one ever exits. "They live on dust, their food is mud; their
   clothes are like birds' clothes, a garment of wings, and they see
   no light, living in blackness." It is full of dust and mighty
   kings serve others food. In Ereshkigal's court, heroes and
   priests reside, as well as Sumuqan and Belit-tseri. The
   scorpion-people guard the gates in the mountain to the underworld
   which Shamash uses to enter and exit. There are seven gates,
   through which one must pass. At each gate, an adornment or
   article of clothing must be removed. The gates are named: Nedu,
   (En)kishar, Endashurimma, (E)nuralla, Endukuga/Nerubanda,
   Endushuba/Eundukuga, and Ennugigi. Beyond the gates are twelve
   double doors, wherein it is dark. Siduri waits there by the
   waters of death, beyond which, is the Land of the Living, where
   Utnapishtim and his wife dwell. Shamash and Utnapishtim's
   boatman, Urshanbi, can cross the waters. Egalginga, the
   everlasting palace, is a place where Ishtar was held.
V. Hey! I read that Cthulhu is really some Babylonian or Sumerian god, how
come he's not there under Kutu?

   I have yet to find any secondary (or for that matter primary)
   source which lists Kutu as a Mesopotamian deity, or for that
   matter lists any name resembling Cthulhu at all. However, having
   been given a pointer by, I have confirmed that
   Kutha or Cutch was the cult city of Nergal, the Akkadian god of
   plagues and the underworld (see above) and that 'lu' is the
   Sumerian word for man. So, Kuthalu would mean Kutha-man which
   could conceivably refer to Nergal. As far as I can tell it could
   mean Joe the Butcher or any of his neighbors who happen to live
   in Kutha just as easily. Nergal, of course bears little
   resemblance to Lovecraft's Cthulhu beyond the fact that both can
   be considered underworld powers. Those interested in further
   discussion about this might wish to contact Dan at the above
   address and they may wish to read alt.horror.cthulhu as well.
VI. So, in AD&D, Tiamat is this five-headed evil dragon, but they got her
from the Enumma Elish, right? What about her counterpart, Bahamut?

   Bahamut, according to Edgerton Sykes' Who's Who of Non-Classical
   Mythology, is "The enormous fish on which stands Kujara, the
   giant bull, whose back supports a rock of ruby, on the top of
   which stands an angel on whose shoulders rests the earth,
   according to Islamic myth. Our word Behemoth is of the same
   origin." (Sykes, p. 28)
   Behemoth then, is usually the male counterpart to Leviathan, and
   is a great beast that roams on land. He is sometimes equated with
   a hippopotamus, and is alternately listed as a creature on the
   side of God and as one over whom God has or will triumph over.
VII. Where did you get this info and where can I find out more?

   Well this FAQ is primarily derived from the following works:
     * Barraclough, Geoffrey (ed.) The Times Consise Atlas of World
       History, Hammond Inc., Maplewood, New Jersey, 1982.
     * Dalley, Stephanie Myths from Mesopotamia, Oxford University
       Press, New York, 1991. This inexpensive volume served as the
       bible for much of this FAQ. It contains translations of the
       major Akkadian language myths with footnotes, brief
       introductions, and a glossary.
     * Gardner, John & Maier, John Gilgamesh :Translated from the
       Sin-Leqi-Unninni Version, Vintage Books, Random House, New
       York, 1984. A tablet by tablet parallel text translation with
       notes and commentary by the late author of Grendel.
     * Hooke, S. H., Babylonian and Assyrian Religion, University of
       Oklahoma Press, Norman Oklahoma, 1963.
     * Kinnier Wilson, J. V., The Rebel Lands : an Investigation
       Into the Origins of Early Mesopotamian Mythology, Cambridge,
       Cambridge University Press, 1979.
     * McCall, Henrietta, Mesopotamian Myths University of Texas
       Press, Austin, 1990. A summary account of Dalley's book with
       nice pictures more cultural context.
     * The New American Bible, Catholic Book Publishing Co., New
       York, 1970.
   In addition the following books have occasionally proven helpful:
     * Carlyon, Richard, A Guide to the Gods, Quill, William Morrow,
       New York, 1981.
     * Hooke, S. H. Middle Eastern Mythology, Penguin Books, New
       York, 1963. This work covers Sumerian, Babylonian,
       Canaanite/Ugaritic, Hittite, and Hebrew mythologic material
       in brief and with comparisons.
     * Jacobsen, Thorkild, The Treasures of Darkness, Yale
       University Press, New Haven, 1976. A good alternative to
       Kramer, Jacobsen explores Mesopotamian religious development
       from early Sumerian times through the Babylonian Enuma Elish.
       Most of the book winds up being on the Sumerians.
     * Pritchard, James B., Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to
       the Old Testament, with Suppliment, Princeton University
       Press, Princeton, 1969.
     * Sykes, Edgerton, Who's Who in Non-Classical Mythology, Oxford
       University Press, New York, 1993.
   While our server set up prevents a direct counter for this page,
   there have been over 92,441 hits here since it's move from MIT in
   September of 1995.
   Visit the Sumerian Mythology FAQ?
   Visit the Canaanite/Ugaritic Mythology FAQ?
   Visit the Hittite Mythology REF?
   Myths and Legends Chris' Homepage

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Satan Service Org: an archive presenting the theory, practice, and history of Satanism and Satanists
Gospel of Satan: the story of Jesus and the angels, from the perspective of the God of this World
Lucky Mojo Usenet FAQ Archive: FAQs and REFs for occult and magical usenet newsgroups
Candles and Curios: essays and articles on traditional African American conjure and folk magic
Aleister Crowley Text Archive: a multitude of texts by an early 20th century ceremonial occultist
Spiritual Spells: lessons in folk magic and spell casting from an eclectic Wiccan perspective
The Mystic Tea Room: divination by reading tea-leaves, with a museum of antique fortune telling cups
Yronwode Institution for the Preservation and Popularization of Indigenous Ethnomagicology
Yronwode Home: personal pages of catherine yronwode and nagasiva yronwode, magical archivists
Lucky Mojo Magic Spells Archives: love spells, money spells, luck spells, protection spells, etc.
      Free Love Spell Archive: love spells, attraction spells, sex magick, romance spells, and lust spells
      Free Money Spell Archive: money spells, prosperity spells, and wealth spells for job and business
      Free Protection Spell Archive: protection spells against witchcraft, jinxes, hexes, and the evil eye
      Free Gambling Luck Spell Archive: lucky gambling spells for the lottery, casinos, and races