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alt.magick LUCID dreaming REFerence file

Newsgroups: alt.magick,alt.magick.tyagi,alt.magick.tantra,alt.consciousness,alt.answers,news.answers
Subject: alt.magick LUCID dreaming REFerence file
Followup-To: alt.magick
Summary: This is a REFerence file for the alt.magick newsgroup.  As such
	 it constitutes an attendant file to the alt.magick FAQ, which is
         intended as an introductory file and its content may be discussed
         within the alt.magick.* contellation.  The FAQ is available at:
Keywords: lucid dream activity sleep 
            part3 of the dreams-faq
From: (tyaginator)
Reply-to: (tyaginator)

Archive-name: magick/lucidref

Orig-From: Leslie Phillips 
Subject: The Lucidity Institute FAQ
Date: Fri, 19 Jan 1996 03:10:46 -0800
Version 2.02, May 4, 1995
(c) The Lucidity Institute
This FAQ is a brief introduction to lucid dreaming--what it is, what 
it takes to do it, and what can be done with it. Please note that 
this is not the full extent of knowledge available in this area. 
References to more comprehensive sources are given below. If you are 
serious about learning to have lucid dreams yourself, then consider 
taking advantage of the excellent resources. 
The goals of the Lucidity Institute are to make lucid dreaming known 
to the public and accessible to anyone interested, to support 
research on lucid dreaming and other states of consciousness, and to 
study potential applications of lucid dreaming. We have a membership 
society with a quarterly newsletter (NIGHTLIGHT) and a product 
catalog to keep interested people informed of the latest 
developments, and to enroll them in participating in ongoing 
research. You are invited to get involved! Email comments and 
inquiries to
Lucid dreaming is dreaming while knowing that you are dreaming. The 
term was coined by Frederik van Eeden (see Green, 1968), using the 
word "lucid" in the sense of mental clarity. Lucidity usually begins 
in the midst of a dream, when the dreamer realizes that the 
experience is not occurring in physical reality, but is a dream. 
Often this realization is triggered by the dreamer noticing some 
impossible or unlikely occurrence in the dream, such as meeting a 
person who is dead, or flying with or without wings. Sometimes 
people become lucid without noticing any particular clue in the 
dream; they just suddenly realize they are in a dream. A minority of 
lucid dreams (according to the research of LaBerge and colleagues, 
about 10 percent) are the result of returning to REM sleep directly 
from an awakening with unbroken reflective consciousness.
The basic definition of lucid dreaming requires nothing more than 
becoming aware that you are dreaming. However, the quality of 
lucidity varies greatly. When lucidity is at a high level, you are 
aware that everything experienced in the dream is occurring in your 
mind, that there is no real danger, and that you are asleep in bed 
and will awaken shortly. With low-level lucidity you may be aware to 
a certain extent that you are dreaming, perhaps enough to fly, or 
alter what you are doing, but not enough to realize that the people 
are dream representations, or that you can suffer no physical 
damage, or that you are actually in bed.
Lucidity and control in dreams are not the same thing. It is 
possible to be lucid and have little control over dream content, and 
conversely, to have a great deal of control without being explicitly 
aware that you are dreaming. Nonetheless, becoming lucid in a dream 
is likely to increase your deliberate influence over the course of 
events. Once you know you are dreaming, you are likely to choose 
some activity that is only possible in dreams. You always have the 
choice of how much control you want to exert, and what kind. For 
example, you could continue with whatever you were doing when you 
became lucid, with the added knowledge that you are dreaming. Or you 
could try to change everything--the dream scene, yourself, other 
dream characters, etc. It is not always possible to perform "magic" 
in dreams, like changing one object into another or transforming 
scenes. A dreamer's ability to succeed at this seems to depend a lot 
on the dreamer's confidence. If you believe that you cannot do 
something in a dream, you will probably not be able to.
On the other hand, the easiest (and perhaps wisest) kind of control 
to exert in a dream is control over your own behavior. This comes in 
especially handy in nightmares. If you become lucid in a bad dream, 
you could try to do magic to escape the situation, but many times 
this does not work very well. It is generally much more effective, 
and better for you psychologically, to recognize that, because you 
are dreaming, nothing can harm you. Your fear is real, but the 
danger is not. Changing attitude in this way usually defuses the 
dream situation and transforms it into something positive.
Lucid dreams usually happen during REM sleep. Sleep is not a uniform 
state, but is characterized by a series of stages (1, 2, 3, and 4, 
and REM) distinguished by certain physiological markers. REM sleep, 
stands for "Rapid Eye Movement" sleep, and is pronounced to rhyme 
with "them", not "R. E. M." Stages 1 through 4 are often lumped 
together under the label non-REM (NREM) sleep. Stages 3 and 4 are 
both referred to as "delta" sleep, for the large, low frequency 
brain waves evident in these stages. Although this is certainly a 
gross oversimplification of the complexity of the physiological and 
mental events in sleep, research has demonstrated that most vivid 
dreaming occurs in REM sleep. It is characterized by an active 
brain, with low amplitude mixed frequency brain waves, suppression 
of skeletal muscle tone, bursts of rapid eye movements, and 
occasional tiny muscular twitches.
The sleep stages cycle throughout a night. The first REM period 
normally happens after a period of delta sleep, approximately 90 
minutes after sleep onset, and lasts from about 5 to 20 minutes. REM 
periods occur roughly every 90 minutes throughout the night, with 
later REM periods occurring at shorter intervals and often being 
longer, sometimes up to an hour in length. Much more REM sleep 
occurs in the second half of the night than in the first.
How do we know that lucid dreaming happens in REM sleep? Dr. Stephen 
LaBerge and his colleagues at Stanford University proved this with 
deliberate eye movement signals given in by lucid dreamers during 
REM sleep. Most of the muscles of the body are paralyzed in REM 
sleep to prevent us from acting out our dreams. However, because the 
eyes are not paralyzed, if you deliberately move your "dream" eyes 
in a dream, your physical eyes move also. LaBerge's subjects slept 
in the laboratory, while the standard measures of sleep physiology 
(brainwaves, muscle tone and eye movements) were recorded. As soon 
as they became lucid in a dream, they moved their eyes in large 
sweeping motions left-right-left-right, as far as possible. This 
left an unmistakable marker on the physiological record of the eye 
movements. Analysis of the records showed that in every case, the 
eye movements marking the times when the subjects realized they were 
dreaming occurred in the middle of unambiguous REM sleep. LaBerge 
has done several experiments on lucid dreaming using the eye-
movement signaling method, demonstrating interesting connections 
between dreamed actions and physiological responses. Some are 
described in his books (see below).
Upon hearing about lucid dreaming for the first time, people often 
ask, "Why should I want to have lucid dreams? What are they good 
for?" If you consider that in dreams, *if* you know you are 
dreaming, you are in principle free to do anything, restricted only 
by your ability to imagine and conceive, not by laws of physics or 
society, then the answer to these questions is either extremely 
simple (Anything!) or extraordinarily complex (Everything!). It is 
easier to provide a sample of what some people have done with lucid 
dreaming than to give a definitive answer of its potential uses.
The first thing that attracts people to lucid dreaming is often the 
potential for adventure and fantasy fulfillment. Flying is a 
favorite lucid dream delight, as is sex. Many people have said that 
their first lucid dream was the most wonderful experience of their 
lives. A large part of the extraordinary pleasure of lucid dreaming 
comes from the exhilarating feeling of utter freedom that 
accompanies the realization that you are in a dream, where there 
will be no social or physical consequences of your actions.
Unfortunately for many people, instead of providing an outlet for 
unlimited fantasy and delight, dreams can be dreaded episodes of 
limitless terror. As is discussed in the books LUCID DREAMING 
(LaBerge & Rheingold, 1990), lucid dreaming may well be the basis of 
the most effective therapy for nightmares. If you know you are 
dreaming, it is a simple logical step to realizing that nothing in 
your current experience, however unpleasant, can cause you physical 
harm. There is no need to run from or fight with dream monsters. In 
fact, it is often pointless to try because you have conceived the 
horror in your mind, and it can pursue you wherever you dream 
yourself to be. The only way to really "escape" is to end your fear; 
as long as you fear your dream, it is likely to return. (For a 
discussion of reasons for recurrent nightmares, see p. 245 of EWLD.) 
The fear you feel in a nightmare is completely real; it is the 
danger that is not.
Unreasonable fear can be defused by facing up to the source, or 
going through with the frightening activity, so that you observe 
that no harm comes to you. In a nightmare, this act of courage can 
take any form that involves facing the "threat" rather than avoiding 
it. For example, one young man dreamt of being pursued by a lion. 
When he had no place left to run, he realized he was dreaming and 
called to the lion to come on and get him. The challenge turned into 
a playful wrestling match, and the lion became a sexy woman 
(NIGHTLIGHT 1.4, 1989, p. 13). Monsters often transform into benign 
creatures, friends, or empty shells (see Saint-Denys, 1867/1982) 
when courageously confronted in lucid dreams. This is an extremely 
empowering experience. It teaches you in a very visceral manner that 
you can conquer fear and become stronger thereby.
Lucid dreaming can also help people achieve goals in their waking 
lives. EWLD contains many examples of ways that individuals have 
used lucid dreams to prepare for some aspect of their waking 
activities. Some of these applications include: rehearsal (trying 
out new behaviors, or practicing them, and honing athletic skills), 
creative problem solving, artistic inspiration, overcoming sexual 
and social problems, coming to terms with the loss of loved ones, 
and physical healing. If the possibility of accelerated physical 
healing, suggested by anecdotes from lucid dreamers, is born out by 
research, it would become a tremendously important reason for 
developing lucid dreaming abilities.
The ability to have lucid dreams may be within the reach of most 
human beings. Research on individual differences has not turned up 
any factors of personality or cognitive ability that substantially 
predict lucid dreaming frequency. So far, the only strong predictor 
of frequent lucid dreaming is high dream recall. This is good news 
for would-be lucid dreamers, because it is fairly easy to increase 
dream recall (more below).
One question frequently asked about learning lucid dreaming is: How 
long does it take? The answer, or course, is that it varies 
depending on the individual. How well does the person recall dreams? 
How much time is available for practicing mental exercises? Does the 
person use a lucid dream induction device? Does the person practice 
diligently? Is the person's critical thinking well developed? And so 
on. Case histories may provide a more tangible picture of the 
process of learning lucid dreaming. Dr. LaBerge increased his 
frequency of lucid dreaming from about one per month to up to four a 
night (at which point he could have lucid dreams on demand) over the 
course of three years. He was studying lucid dreaming for his 
doctoral dissertation and therefore needed to learn to have them on 
demand as quickly as possible. On the other hand, he had to invent 
techniques for improving lucid dreaming skills. Thus, people 
starting now, although they may not be as strongly motivated as 
LaBerge, have the advantage of well-developed techniques, complete 
training programs, and electronic biofeedback aids that have been 
created in the 16 years since LaBerge began his studies.
Lynne Levitan, staff writer for NIGHTLIGHT, describes her 
experiences with learning lucid dreaming as follows: 
"I first heard of lucid dreaming in April of 1982, when I took 
a course from Dr. LaBerge at Stanford University. I had had 
the experience many years before and was very interested to 
learn to do it again, as well as to get involved in the 
research. First I had to develop my dream recall, because at 
the time I only remembered two or three dreams per week. In a 
couple of months I was recalling 3 to 4 or more per night, and 
in July (about three months after starting) I had my first 
lucid dream since adolescence. I worked at it on and off for 
the next four years (not sleeping much as a student) and 
reached the level of 3 to 4 lucid dreams per week. Along the 
way, I tested several prototypes of the DreamLight lucid dream 
induction device and it clearly helped me become more 
proficient at realizing when I was dreaming. In the first two 
years we were developing the DreamLight, I had lucid dreams on 
half of the nights I used one of these devices, compared to 
once a week or less without. In considering how long it took 
me to get really good at lucid dreaming, note that I did not 
have the benefit of the thoroughly studied and explained 
techniques now available either, because the research had not 
yet been done nor the material written. Therefore, people now 
should be able to accomplish the same learning in far less 
time, of course, given sufficient motivation."
As mentioned above, the most important prerequisite for learning 
lucid dreaming is excellent dream recall. There are probably two 
reasons for this. One is that if you do not remember your dreams, 
you are unable to study them to discover what about them could help 
you realize that you are not awake. Another is that you might have 
lucid dreams without knowing it, because you do not remember them.
The procedure for improving your dream recall is fully detailed in 
EWLD, and A COURSE IN LUCID DREAMING (see below) as well as many 
other books on dreams. The core exercise is keeping a dream journal, 
and writing down everything you recall about your dreams, no matter 
how fragmentary. You must not wait until morning to take notes on 
dreams recalled in the middle of the night because, no matter how 
clear they are at the time, they are apt to disappear entirely from 
your memory by the time you get up in the morning. You also should 
write them down first thing in the morning, before you even think 
about anything else. In A COURSE IN LUCID DREAMING we advise that 
people build their dream recall to at least one per night before 
proceeding onto lucid dream induction techniques.
Another dream-recall related exercise introduced in EWLD, and 
further developed in A COURSE IN LUCID DREAMING is identifying 
"dreamsigns." This is a word coined by LaBerge referring to elements 
of dreams that indicate that you are dreaming. (Examples: miraculous 
flight, purple cats, malfunctioning devices, and meeting deceased 
people.) By studying your dreams you can become familiar with your 
own personal dreamsigns and set your mind to recognize them and 
become lucid in future dreams. The COURSE also provides exercises 
for practicing noticing dreamsigns while you are awake, so that the 
skill carries over into your dreams. This exercise also relates to 
lucid dream induction devices, which give sensory cues--special, 
artificially-produced dreamsigns--while you are dreaming. To succeed 
at recognizing these cues, you need to practice looking for them and 
recognizing them while you are awake (more below).
This is a good technique for beginners. Assign yourself several 
times a day to perform the following exercise. Also do it anytime 
you think of it, especially when something odd occurs, or when you 
are reminded of dreams. It helps to choose specific occasions like: 
when I see my face in the mirror, when I look at my watch, when I 
arrive at work or home, when I pick up my lucid dream induction 
device or the NIGHTLIGHT. The more frequently and thoroughly you 
practice this technique, the better it will work.
1. Carry some text with you or wear a digital watch throughout the 
day. To do a reality test, read the words or the numbers on the 
watch. Then, look away and look back, observing the letters or 
numbers to see if they change. Try to make them change while 
watching them. If they do change, or are not normal, or do not make 
sense, then you are most probably dreaming. Enjoy! If the characters 
are normal, stable, and sensible, then you probably aren't dreaming. 
Go on to step 2.
2. If you are sure you are awake, then say to yourself, "I may not 
be dreaming now, but if I were, what would it be like?" Visualize as 
vividly as possible that you are dreaming. Intently imagine that 
what you are seeing, hearing, smelling, feeling is all a dream. 
Imagine instabilities in your environment, words changing, scenes 
transforming, perhaps you floating off the ground. Create in 
yourself the feeling that you are in a dream. Holding that feeling, 
go on to step 3.
3. Pick something you would like to do in your next lucid dream, 
perhaps flying, talking to particular dream characters, or just 
exploring the dream world. Continue to imagine that you are dreaming 
now, and that you try out the thing you plan to do in your next 
lucid dream.
(Modified from EWLD, p. 78)
Developed by LaBerge and used by him to induce lucid dreams at will 
during his Ph.D. study, MILD is practiced during the night.
1. Setup dream recall.
Set your mind to awaken from dreams and recall them. When you awaken 
from a dream, recall it as completely as you can. 
2. Focus your intent.
While returning to sleep, concentrate single-mindedly on your 
intention to remember to recognize that you're dreaming. Tell 
yourself: "Next time I'm dreaming, I want to remember I'm dreaming." 
Try to feel that you really mean it. Focus your thoughts on this 
idea alone. If you find yourself thinking about anything else, let 
it go and bring your mind back to your intention to remember.
3. See yourself becoming lucid.
At the same time, imagine that you are back in the dream you just 
woke from (or another one you have had recently if you didn't 
remember a dream on awakening), but this time you recognize that it 
is a dream. Look for a dreamsign--something in the dream that 
demonstrates plainly that it is a dream (see NIGHTLIGHT 1.3 & 1.4 
for more about dreamsigns). When you see it say to yourself: "I'm 
dreaming!" and continue your fantasy. Imagine yourself carrying out 
your plans for your next lucid dream. For example, if you want to 
fly in your lucid dream, imagine yourself flying when you come to 
the point in your fantasy that you "realize" you are dreaming.
4. Repeat until your intention is set.
Repeat steps 2 and 3 until your intention is set; then let yourself 
fall asleep. If, while falling asleep, you find yourself thinking of 
anything else, repeat the procedure so that the last thing in your 
mind before falling asleep is your intention to remember to 
recognize the next time you are dreaming.
The Lucidity Institute offers several electronic devices that help 
people achieve lucid dreams. They were developed through laboratory 
research at Stanford University by LaBerge, Levitan, and others. The 
basic principle behind all of these devices is as follows: The 
primary task confronting someone who wishes to have a lucid dream is 
to remember that intention while in a dream. We often remember to do 
things while awake through reminders: notes, strings around fingers, 
alarms, and so on. However, such reminders are of little use in 
dreams, although there are other kinds of reminders that are in fact 
helpful. The observation that some sensory events are occasionally 
incorporated into ongoing dreams (like your clock radio or the 
neighbor's saw appearing disguised in your dream rather than 
awakening you) led to the idea of using a particular sensory 
stimulus as a cue to a dreamer to become lucid. For example, a tape 
recording of a voice saying "You're dreaming" played while a person 
is in REM sleep will sometimes come through into the dream and 
remind the person to become lucid. In our research we settled on 
using flashing lights as a lucidity cue, because they had less 
tendency to awaken people than sound and were easy to apply. The 
DreamLight and NovaDreamer devices also have a sound cue option, 
which is useful for people who sleep more deeply.
The DreamLight, DreamLink, and NovaDreamer all work by giving users 
flashing light cues when they are dreaming. Users work with their 
devices to find an intensity and length of cue that enters their 
dreams without awakening them. In addition, device users should 
practice mental exercises while awake for the best preparation for 
recognizing the light cues when they appear in dreams. The devices 
are based around a soft, comfortable sleep mask, which contains the 
flashing lights. The DreamLight and NovaDreamer detect the rapid eye 
movements of REM sleep, when the wearer is likely to be dreaming, 
and give cues when the level of eye movement activity is high 
enough. The DreamLink lacks the eye movement detection circuitry; 
the user sets its timer to trigger the cues at times likely to 
coincide with REM periods.
These lucid dream induction devices offer a second method of lucid 
dream stimulation. This method arose out of the discovery that while 
sleeping with the DreamLight, people frequently dreamed that they 
awakened wearing the device, and pressed the button on the front of 
the mask to start the "delay," a feature that disables cues while 
you are drifting off to sleep. Ordinarily, the button would cause a 
beep to tell you that you had successfully pressed it. However, 
people were reporting that the button was not working in the middle 
of the night. Actually, they were dreaming that they were awakening 
and pressing the button, and the button did not work because it was 
a dream version of the DreamLight. Dream versions of devices are 
notorious for not working normally. Once people were advised that 
failure of the button in the middle of the night was a sign that 
they were probably dreaming, they were able to use this "dreamsign" 
reliably to become lucid during "false awakenings" with the 
DreamLight. This "reality test" button turned out to be so useful 
that it became an important part of all the lucid dream induction 
devices developed by the Lucidity Institute. Research suggests that 
about half of the lucid dreams stimulated by the devices result from 
using the button for reality tests.
FEATURE                       DreamLight     DreamLink   NovaDreamer
Eye/Body movement sensing     EYE & BODY     NONE        EYE
Color of light cue            WHITE          RED         RED
Sound cue option              YES            NO          YES
Cue brightness adjustment     YES            YES         YES
Cue duration adjustment       YES            YES         YES
Cue rate and style adjustment YES            NO          YES
Dream Alarm (helps recall)    YES            NO          YES
Data storage                  All sleep data NONE        Cues given
Digital readout               YES            NO          NO
Power                         AC             AAA-cells   AAA-cells
Approximate cost (4/95)       $990           n/a*        $275**
(* DreamLink no longer available)
(** Lucidity Institute Student Member price: $175)
All three devices come with A COURSE IN LUCID DREAMING, EWLD, and 
membership in the Lucidity Institute, with subscription to the 
NIGHTLIGHT, and telephone (and Email) product support.
The Lucidity Institute's lucid dream induction devices are designed 
to help people achieve lucidity by giving them cues while they are 
dreaming and a reliable means of testing their state of 
consciousness. They do not *make* people have lucid dreams any more 
than an exercise machine makes people have muscles. In both cases 
the goal, muscles or lucid dreams, result from practice. The 
machines just make it easier to get the desired results. Several 
factors enter into success with one of these devices. One is how 
well the device (or in the case of the DreamLink, the user) catches 
REM sleep with the sensory cues. Another is how reliably the cues 
enter into the dream without awakening the sleeper. A third factor 
is how well the device user does at correctly recognizing cues in 
dreams and becoming lucid. Finally, the user's commitment to 
performing reality tests every time upon waking up wearing the 
device has a lot to do with success. All four of these factors are, 
to some extent, controllable by the device user: adjustment of eye 
movement sensitivity to catch REM sleep, selecting a cue that enters 
dreams without causing awakenings, mental preparation to recognize 
cues in dreams, and resolution to do reality tests. Therefore, it is 
difficult to obtain a truly representative measurement of the 
effectiveness of the devices. Nonetheless, research with various 
versions of the DreamLight have shown that it definitely helps 
people have more frequent lucid dreams.
The most recent study was done with the current model of the 
DreamLight. A complete write-up of the experiment is in NIGHTLIGHT 
5.3. In brief, fourteen people who were well-versed in DreamLight 
use compared two conditions. They believed they were trying two 
different types of cues. However, in fact in one condition they 
received no cues at all, as a sort of "placebo" condition. It was 
possible for the subjects to not know they were not getting any 
cues, because the DreamLight generally does not give cues when the 
wearer is awake (the result of the body movement sensor). Thus, the 
study examined how much the DreamLight's light cues contributed to 
the achievement of lucid dreams. Nights on which the DreamLight gave 
cues were called "CUED" and no-cue nights were called "PLACEBO".
Eleven of the 14 subjects reported at least one lucid dream during 
the study. Eight of the 11 (73%) had more lucid dreams on CUED 
nights, two (18%) had equal numbers, and only one (9%) had more on 
the PLACEBO nights. The average number of lucid dreams per person 
in the CUED nights was 0.30 (one lucid dream per 3 nights) versus 
0.09 for PLACEBO nights (one lucid dream every 11 nights), a 
statistically significant nearly three-fold increase in lucid 
dreaming frequency. Clearly, the DreamLight cues help people to 
become lucid. Subjects reported about nine times more cue 
incorporations on CUED than on PLACEBO nights (CUED: 73 total, 
0.90 per night average; PLACEBO: 9 total, 0.11 per night average). 
Dream recall was also higher on CUED nights; subjects recalled an 
average of 3.2 dreams per night in the CUED condition, versus 2.6 
per night in the PLACEBO condition.
An earlier study with a different version of the DreamLight showed a 
five-fold increase in lucid dreaming frequency when people used the 
Mnemonic Induction of Lucid Dreaming (MILD) mental technique in 
conjunction with the device, compared with using no device and no 
mental technique. Using the device without mental techniques worked 
about as well as just using the mental technique, which was in both 
cases an improvement over using nothing.
In summary, at this stage the lucid dream induction devices can 
definitely help people learn to have more lucid dreams, or to have 
lucid dreams in the first place. Important factors contributing to 
success are good dream recall (and the DreamLight and NovaDreamer 
also can be used to boost dream recall), diligent mental preparation 
by the user, and careful adjustment of the device by the user to fit 
individual needs for cueing and REM detection. No device yet exists 
that will *make* a person have a lucid dream.
Q. Is there a way to prevent yourself from awakening immediately 
after becoming lucid?
A. At first, beginners may have difficulty remaining in the dream 
after they become lucid. This obstacle may prevent many people from 
realizing the value of lucid dreaming, because they have not 
experienced more than the flash of knowing they are dreaming, 
followed by immediate awakening. Two simple techniques can help you 
overcome this problem. The first is to remain calm in the dream. 
Becoming lucid is exciting, but expressing the excitement can awaken 
you. Suppress your feeling somewhat and turn your attention to the 
dream. If the dream shows signs of ending, such as a loss of detail, 
vividness and apparent reality of the imagery, "spinning" can help 
bring the dream back. As soon as the dream starts to fade, before 
you feel your physical body in bed, spin your dream body like a top. 
That is, twirl around like a child trying to get dizzy (you don't 
get dizzy during dream spinning because your physical body is not 
spinning around). Remind yourself, "The next scene will be a dream." 
When you stop spinning, if it is not obvious that you are dreaming, 
do a reality test. Even if you think you are awake, you may be 
surprised to find that you are still dreaming!
Over the past decade, exercises, techniques and training materials 
have been developed and refined to the point where most anyone 
should be able to learn to have more lucid dreams if they are 
willing to give it some time and effort. The Lucidity Institute 
offers lucid dreaming training through several modalities. To start, 
most bookstores carry (or can easily get) the book EXPLORING THE 
WORLD OF LUCID DREAMING by LaBerge and Rheingold (Ballantine, 1990), 
or you can order it from the Lucidity Institute. It presents a step-
by-step training program with exercises and an introduction to the 
various possible applications of lucid dreaming. The basic structure 
in this book is greatly expanded and augmented by the Lucidity 
Institute's workbook A COURSE IN LUCID DREAMING. The course is five 
units, taking a minimum of 4 months to complete, and it guides you 
through completing a series of progressive exercises to build up 
your lucid dreaming ability. It uses EWLD as a textbook.
An intensive overview of lucid dreaming techniques is presented at 
Lucidity Institute Lucid Dreaming Training Programs. These workshops 
are often offered as a package with the purchase of a Lucidity 
Institute lucid dream induction device (DreamLight or NovaDreamer). 
So far, most of the Training Programs have been held in California, 
but the Lucidity Institute will give one wherever there is enough 
interest. Dr. LaBerge also gives weekend seminars at the Esalen 
Institute in Big Sur, California about once a year, as well as 
occasional lectures and workshops at other venues. To find out about 
upcoming events, contact the Lucidity Institute (via Email at or telephone at 415-321-9969).
This is a selection of some recommended books and tapes on lucid 
dreaming. The titles marked with an asterisk (*) are available from  
the Lucidity Institute.
*LUCID DREAMING, by Stephen LaBerge, Ph.D., (Ballantine, 1986)
This is the seminal work that first brought lucid dreaming to the 
attention of the general public and legitimized it as a valuable 
field of scientific inquiry. It is still the best general reference 
on lucid dreaming, and a pleasure to read. The phenomenon of lucid 
dreaming is explored from many angles, beginning with the history of 
the practice in human cultures. LaBerge describes the early days of 
the scientific research and tells the story of his successful 
challenge of the established school of thought in sleep research, 
which held that awareness while dreaming was impossible. He 
discusses many methods of lucid dream induction, including the way 
he taught himself to have lucid dreams several times in one night. 
Other topics covered include: applications of lucid dreaming, the 
relationship of lucid dreaming to out-of-body and near-death 
experiences, and the possibility of lucid dreaming serving as a 
gateway or stepping stone on the path to spiritual enlightenment.
and Howard Rheingold (Ballantine, 1990)
A practical guide for lucid dreamers. The first half of the book 
establishes a basic understanding of sleep and dreams, followed by a 
progressive series of exercises for developing lucid dreaming 
skills. These include cataloging "dreamsigns," your personal 
landmarks that tell you when you are dreaming, the Reflection-
Intention and MILD techniques for becoming lucid within the dream 
and methods of falling asleep consciously based on ancient Tibetan 
Yoga practices. After presenting the lucid dream induction 
techniques, Dr. LaBerge explains his understanding of the origin of 
dreams, founded on current views in the sciences of consciousness 
and cognition. This provides a foundation for the methods of 
employing lucid dreams to enhance your life, which are detailed in 
the second half of the book. The applications considered are: 
adventures and explorations, rehearsal for living, creative problem-
solving, overcoming nightmares, healing, and discovery of expanded 
awareness and spiritual experience. Many delightful and illuminating 
anecdotes from lucid dreamers illustrate the use of lucid dreams for 
each application.
*CONSCIOUS MIND, SLEEPING BRAIN, edited by Jayne Gackenbach, Ph.D. 
and Stephen LaBerge, Ph.D. (Plenum, 1990)
Nineteen dream researchers and other professionals contributed to 
this scholarly volume. It represents a wide spectrum of viewpoints 
in the field of lucid dreaming study, and is an essential reference 
for anyone interested in studying lucid dreams or applying them in 
clinical practice. Topics include: literature, psychophysiology, 
personality, therapy, personal experience, related states of 
consciousness, and more.
LUCID DREAMS, by Celia E. Green (Hamish Hamilton, London, 1968)
This is the book that inspired Dr. LaBerge to begin his studies of 
lucid dreaming. Green reviews the literature on lucid dreaming up 
through the 50's, including the Marquis de Saint-Denys' work 
described below. She also presents case histories of lucid dreamers 
and well characterizes much of the phenomenology (subjective 
experience) of lucid dreaming.
DREAMS AND HOW TO GUIDE THEM, by The Marquis d'Hervey de Saint-
Denys, edited by Morton Schatzman (Duckworth, London, 1982)
A great pioneer of the art of lucid dreaming, the Marquis first 
published this exploration of lucid dreaming in 1867, yet this is a 
very modern, and, yes, lucid, thesis. He describes his personal 
experiments, and the development of his ability to exercise control 
in his lucid dreams.
Garfield, Ph.D. (Prentice Hall, 1989)
Delightfully told story of Patricia Garfield's transcendent and 
erotic adventures with lucid dreaming.
*CONTROLLING YOUR DREAMS, by Stephen LaBerge, Ph.D. (Audio 
Renaissance Tapes, Inc., 1987, 60 minutes)
This audio cassette tape captures the essence of Dr. LaBerge's 
public lectures on lucid dreaming. It is highly informative and 
inspirational. Use it as an excellent introduction to the topic or a 
concise refresher. Dr. LaBerge begins by portraying the experience 
of lucid dreaming. He then presents methods for learning the skill, 
including the powerful MILD technique. The descriptions he gives of 
possible applications of lucid dreaming, from creative problem 
solving and rehearsal for living, to overcoming nightmares and 
achieving greater psychological integration, will encourage you to 
learn this valuable skill.
(The Lucidity Institute, 1993, 40 minutes)
Dr. LaBerge's trance induction is designed to help you create a 
mind-set in which lucid dreaming will happen easily. The hypnotic 
induction begins with progressive relaxation accompanied by guided 
visualization of calming images. Once you have attained a peaceful 
state of mind, Dr. LaBerge gives you suggestions for creating your 
own certainty that you will succeed at having lucid dreams. You will 
come up with a personal symbol for conjuring your confidence in your 
ability whenever you desire.
The Lucidity Institute maintains a WWW site at
and an anonymous ftp site at 
Currently available files include the Lucidity Institute Catalog, 
workshop announcements, this FAQ, and various articles from NightLight. 
Files can also be emailed on request.
Telephone: 415-321-9969 or 800-GO LUCID * Fax: 415-321-9967
Postal: 2555 Park Blvd., #2, Palo Alto, CA 94306-1919
Copyright 1994 by The Lucidity Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 
Permission for non-commercial use is hereby granted, provided that 
this file is distributed intact. 

--Boundary (ID V/YyMXksT1YskI+YTh1Q9Q)--

This document is Copyright (c) 1995, authors cited.

All rights reserved.  Permission to distribute the collection is
hereby granted providing that distribution is electronic, no money
is involved, reasonable attempts are made to use the latest version
and all credits and this copyright notice are maintained.

Other requests for distribution should be directed to the individual
authors of the particular articles.

nagasiva, tyagi
tyagI@houseofkaos.Abyss.coM (I@AM)

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