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The Golden Dawn FAQ

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                         The Golden Dawn FAQ
                     28 October 1998, Version 5.0
   Avete, Fratres et Sorores! 
   Here is the latest version of the Golden Dawn FAQ. As always, any
   and all comments or corrections are welcome. Aside of the fact
   that this is the first version of the Golden Dawn FAQ in HTML
   rather than plain ASCII text, a lot of new material has been
   added. A completely new section (``Golden Dawn Minutae'') has
   been created to be able to present material which many may find
   interesting, but which has not been widely propagated in
   published books.
   Many thanks to Mitch Henson for the generous loan of disk-space
   that makes this page possible.
   Steven Cranmer
                       Version 5.0, October 1998
    Copyright Steven R. Cranmer, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998
     The author grants the right to copy and distribute this file,
   provided that it remains unmodified, the original authorship and
    copyright is retained, and that it not be incorporated into any
     redistributed or commercial publication without the author's
   knowledge. ``Modification'' here includes the reformatting of the
    file into other types, such as PDF. The author retains both the
        right and intention to modify and extend this document.
   I. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
    1. What is the Golden Dawn?
    2. Is the Golden Dawn a religion?
    3. Is the hierarchy of grades merely a ruse to empower the
    4. Are Golden Dawn Temples still active? How can I become a
    5. How is the Golden Dawn connected with the Rosicrucians?
    6. How is the Golden Dawn connected with Freemasonry?
    7. Who was Israel Regardie?
    8. What connection did Aleister Crowley have with the Golden
    9. How does one get started?
   II. A Brief History of the Golden Dawn
   III. Golden Dawn Minutae
   IV. List of Active Golden Dawn Temples and Related Organizations
   V. Useful References
I. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) 
   (1) What is the Golden Dawn? 
   The Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn is an initiatory society
   devoted to spiritual, philosophical, and magical development. The
   ideas studied by Golden Dawn initiates are a unique combination
   of Jewish Kabbalah, ancient Egyptian and Greek mysteries, several
   strands of Christianity, and many other Western esoteric
   traditions. To quote its ``history lecture,'' (from Israel
   Regardie's book, The Golden Dawn),
     ``The Order of the G.D. [Golden Dawn] is an Hermetic Society
     whose members are taught the principles of Occult Science and
     the Magic of Hermes.''
   The Golden Dawn was founded in 1887 by three British Freemasons
   (see the brief history in Part II, below), and it admitted
   hundreds of men and women over the next several decades. The
   original Golden Dawn generated a body of esoteric knowledge about
   ceremonial magic, divination, alchemy, and philosophy that is
   unparalleled to this day. Traditions as seemingly different as
   Chaos Magick and Gardnerian Wicca have roots in the Golden Dawn,
   and it has been of profound influence in the lives of artists
   (e.g., the poet W. B. Yeats, the author Arthur Machen) and
   scholars (e.g., A. E. Waite). The fascinating spiritual mysteries
   taught by the Golden Dawn continue to have a profound impact on
   people from all walks of life.
   The Golden Dawn ``system of magic'' is a tool designed to educate
   the student of the esoteric in both practical matters of ritual
   and divination, and in abstract metaphysical ideas. The focus of
   the Golden Dawn material is primarily Western - i.e.,
   Judeo-Christian, Greek, and Egyptian - but some Eastern ideas
   have crept in over the years. It is a ``hierarchical'' or
   ``matricular'' system, in that certain information is reserved
   for students who have passed beyond a certain point in their
   occult education. The system of grades is as follows (along with
   their correspondences with the classical elements, the seven
   ancient planets, and the ten ``sephiroth'' or spiritual
   ``spheres'' of the Jewish Kabbalah), with the student beginning
   at the top:
   0 = 0 Neophyte --- --- ---
   1 = 10 Zelator Earth --- Malkuth (Kingdom)
   2 = 9 Theoricus Air Moon Yesod (Foundation)
   3 = 8 Practicus Water Mercury Hod (Splendour)
   4 = 7 Philosophus Fire Venus Netzach (Victory)
   5 = 6 Adeptus Minor Spirit Sun Tiphareth (Beauty)
   6 = 5 Adeptus Major --- Mars Gevurah (Might)
   7 = 4 Adeptus Exemptus --- Jupiter Chesed (Mercy)
   8 = 3 Magister Templi --- Saturn Binah (Understanding)
   9 = 2 Magus --- --- Chokmah (Wisdom)
   10 = 1 Ipsissimus --- --- Kether (Crown)
   The grades of Neophyte through Philosophus comprise the First, or
   Outer Order. A grade called the ``Portal'' comes between 4=7 and
   5=6, and this contains some very powerful symbolism on the
   transition between the Outer and Inner ``Mysteries.'' The three
   Adept grades comprise the Second, or Inner Order (Rosae Rubeae et
   Aureae Crucis), and are normally only open to those who pass
   rigorous examinations and are chosen on other qualifications. The
   final three grades (which refer to the ``Supernal'' sephiroth)
   comprise the Third, or Hidden Order of Masters. There is
   considerable disagreement among Order sources as to whether
   living human beings can attain these final mystical grades (not
   unlike the Bodhisattvas of Buddhism, it seems).
   Please note that the above is just a brief summary, and that many
   details have been omitted for the sake of clarity. For more
   information, many of the books and articles listed in the
   Reference section can be of assistance, as can some of the World
   Wide Web sites associated with Active Golden Dawn Temples.
   Some may wonder why people would want to pursue their spiritual
   goals via the antiquated, or even superstitious, means of
   ceremonial magic. Mary K. Greer, in Women of the Golden Dawn,
   notes that there are several different definitions of magic that
   have different connotations:
     ``While some writers have regarded magic as psycho-therapeutic
     work (Francis King and Israel Regardie, for example), others
     have characterized it as the discovery of the unity within all
     duality, the truth behind all illusions. W. B. Yeats sought
     knowledge of what he called `the single energetic Mind,' and
     its pole, `the single Memory of nature,' both of which he
     believed could be evoked by symbols. But I like Florence
     Farr's definition of magic best: `Magic is unlimiting
     experience.' That is, magic consists of removing the
     limitations from what we think are the earthly and spiritual
     laws that bind or compel us. We can be anything because we are
   (2) Is the Golden Dawn a religion? 
   Definitely not. Although religious and metaphysical concepts are
   the focus of much of the Golden Dawn material, ``there is nothing
   contrary to your civil, moral, or religious duties'' (to quote
   the Neophyte initiation ceremony) in any oaths or Order matters.
   This is a landmark that seems to have been passed down from
   Freemasonry, one of the primary sources of the Golden Dawn
   initiatory structure. However, an overall notion of religious
   tolerance pervades the Golden Dawn, for one is also reminded (in
   the same ceremony), to ``Remember that you hold all Religions in
   reverence, for there is none but contains a Ray from the
   Ineffable Light that you are seeking.''
   (Note: My source for the text of the above oaths/obligations
   comes from Regardie's published account of Stella Matutina
   ceremonies, The Golden Dawn. Some modern groups most probably
   have changed some parts of these obligations - especially the
   parts that deal with keeping the rituals, membership, and even
   the existence of the Order completely secret. It is always a good
   idea, of course, to inquire about these things before pursuing
   membership in any organization. See Question 3, below.)
   For those who would decry all things ``occult'' as Satanic and/or
   pagan, know that the higher degrees of the Golden Dawn seem to
   grow more and more Christian in character as one climbs the
   hierarchy of grades. The influence of the Rosicrucians, a
   mystical/mythical Christian organization dating from the 17th
   century, is strong indeed (see Question 5). For those who shy
   away from the often-overbearing aegis of Christendom, don't
   despair, as there is enough symbolism present in the Golden Dawn
   material to satisfy nearly any taste. Jewish Kabbalah, Islam,
   Hinduism, the Egyptian and Greek Mysteries, and even the Celtic
   mythos have all been integrated into Golden Dawn work at one time
   or another.
   One final disclaimer: While this author heartily believes that
   religious partisanship has no place in the Golden Dawn, this is
   by no means the only opinion. Some Golden Dawn groups, for
   example, are said to explicitly bar Thelemites (see Question 8)
   from membership in their Second Order. If anyone can verify this
   position, or provide any other similar ones, I would like to
   know, and would make such implicit requirements known in Part IV,
   (3) Is the hierarchy of grades merely a ruse to empower the
   Well, even Magical Orders are made up of human beings, and some
   inevitably take advantage of the ``faithful.'' This can come in
   many guises: expensive dues for a trickle of information,
   out-and-out lies about magical powers or ancient sources, forced
   therapy before advancement, uncomfortable initiations, or
   expulsion if one holds a differing viewpoint. As with anything
   else, place your caveat firmly in your emptor before taking any
   However, the concept of the hierarchy of grades has its definite
   merits. First of all, consider the parallels with education in
   general. One must first learn ones' alphabet before learning to
   read; and learn to read before understanding Tom Sawyer, let
   alone Finnegans Wake. Also, training in magic necessarily
   involves an exploration of different modes and areas of ones' own
   consciousness, the experiencing of which can very well be
   jolting, frightening, or even life-threatening. Some aspects of
   the psyche are best left unexplored until one develops the tools
   and stamina necessary for the journey.
   The issue of secrecy is an F.A.I. (Frequently Argued Issue) in
   many forums on and off the Internet, and for the most part, most
   of the original Golden Dawn ``secrets'' have already been (or are
   in the process of being) published. However, it still comes up
   often enough to address a few points. Why keep certain things
   secret, you may ask? Well...
     * It is worth it not to have everything handed to you all at
       once. Whether it is working out physics problems, or reading
       an Agatha Christie mystery novel, skipping to the end for the
       ``answers'' can take something away from the experience.
     * Many posit the existence of a ``Group Mind'' which can
       develop in some seriously minded associations of individuals.
       ``Secrecy'' here (which is sometimes termed ``Silence'' to
       differentiate it from a more widely spread hoarding of
       knowledge) is just an outgrowth of simple privacy,
       commitment, and integrity among a closely knit group of
       people, who don't want their business known by the entire
       world. Of course, when their ``business'' begins to entail
       the propagation of a tradition claimed to be of benefit to
       all humankind, it becomes harder to justify secrecy as a
       simple privacy issue.
     * One must differentiate between information and knowledge.
       There is a huge difference between the basic facts of a craft
       (which can be and are set down in books) and the actual
       skills that people develop from accumulated experience (which
       usually cannot even be expressed in concise words, let alone
       written down). I think many would agree, to use Colin Low's
       analogy, that a ``Do It Yourself Brain Surgery'' book would
       be a bad idea. The knowledge isn't really a secret, but it's
       certainly not available for everyone's immediate use, either.
   All things considered, however, secrecy is something which should
   certainly be left up to each individual. To quote alt.magick's
   resident terminator, Tyagi Nagasiva, ``There are very many good
   reasons for secrecy, and very few for requiring it.''
   (4) Are Golden Dawn Temples still active? How can I become a
   Yes, there are Temples still thriving, from the U.S.A. to New
   Zealand. See Part IV, the list of active Golden Dawn Temples and
   related organizations, below.
   Becoming a member of a magical order, however, is something that
   should not be taken lightly. An insightful study of many of the
   pro's and con's was published by Donald Michael Kraig in an
   article called ``So you want to join a Magical Order...'' in The
   Llewellyn New Times (May-June 1992, no. 923). A few general
   things to note, however:
     * Don't count on having ``secrets'' revealed to you.
       Ninety-nine percent of them are already published, in some
       form, somewhere.
     * The symbols and metaphors used by a particular group or
       tradition may not ``work'' for you. Even different ``Golden
       Dawn'' groups vary in their focus or underlying worldview,
       and many have altered or expanded upon the original 19th
       century G.D. material. Don't confuse the map (the association
       of individuals) with the territory (the system of symbol and
     * Listen to your common sense! If something doesn't feel right
       to you, by all means don't do it. Not everyone seems meant to
       work within an Order - possibly you can do better, and create
       something new!
   (5) How is the Golden Dawn connected with the Rosicrucians? 
   The Golden Dawn's own ceremonies claim a descent (in spirit if
   not a direct lineage) with the Rosicrucians, a mystic Christian
   organization that may, or may not have ``existed'' in the
   strictest sense of the word. A short history of Rosicrucianism in
   in order.
   In about the year 1610, an anonymous document entitled Fama
   Fraternitatis of the Meritorious Order of the Rosy Cross was
   distributed among German occultists, and was printed at Cassel in
   1614. It describes the founding of a secret order of enlightened
   learning in the Hermetic and Christian mysteries. The (mythical)
   life story of the founder, C.R.C. (Christian Rosenkreutz) is
   related, as well as the discovery of his wondrous tomb centuries
   later. A second manifesto, Confessio Fraternitatis (1615),
   describes the Rosicrucian Order in more detail, and firmly takes
   sides against the Papacy. A third document, The Chymical Wedding
   of Christian Rosenkreutz, is an interesting alchemical fantasy,
   probably written by Lutheran pastor Johann Valentine Andreae in
   his impetuous youth, but with little to do with the previous
   The publication of these documents met an eager public, and many
   published their scholarly and religious ``credentials'' hoping to
   get noticed and chosen for membership. After about twenty years,
   however, this fervor seemingly died down. It wasn't until the
   late 1600s and early 1700s that hints of Rosicrucianism began to
   reappear, and the Rosicrucian egregore seemed to find a home in
   Freemasonry. From England to Russia, Masonic/Rosicrucian groups
   flourished in the late 1700s, and the most well-known were the
   Gold- und Rosenkreutzers in Germany. Again, however, this
   activity seemed to fade into the background until the late 1800s,
   with the popular revival of esotericism and the occult in
   England. The Masonic Societas Rosicruciana described below (Part
   II) was the immediate precursor of the Golden Dawn, but no known
   direct connection is known with the original 17th century
   In the 20th century, there has been a virtual explosion of groups
   claiming the Rosicrucian mantle, and it is quite wisely that the
   Adeptus Minor of the G.D. is warned to be wary of ``strangers''
   claiming to be members of the Rosicrucian Order - especially
   those that claim that their group is the only Rosicrucian Order.
   This author agrees with Paul Foster Case's assessment that the
   ``True and Invisible'' Rosicrucian Order is a shared ``state of
   mind,'' not an actual organized society. Thus, any historical
   links between Rosicrucianism and the Golden Dawn seem to be much
   less important than the fact that many members of the G.D. have
   been and are in touch with the ``soul'' or egregore of the Rosy
        Ex Deo nascimur, in Jesu morimur, per Spiritum Sanctum
   (6) How is the Golden Dawn connected with Freemasonry? 
   The Golden Dawn was founded by three Freemasons (Mathers,
   Woodman, and Westcott) and contains a great deal of Masonically
   derived symbolism, but has no formal connection with Freemasonry
   or any of its appendant bodies.
   Like in the case of many other ``fringe'' or ``occult'' societies
   founded in the later years of the 19th century, the founders of
   the Golden Dawn adapted the existing allegorical and dramatic
   framework of Masonic ceremonies when constructing the G.D. In the
   Outer Order, both the layout of the Temple and the functions of
   Officers seem to closely mirror those of the Blue Lodge of
   Masonry. The names of the grades, as well as the titles bestowed
   upon initiates, were taken from those of the 18th century Masonic
   Gold- und Rosenkreutzers. In the Inner Order, the Rosicrucian
   drama enacted in the initiation rituals is reminiscent of that in
   the ``Rose Croix'' degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish
   Rite of Freemasonry, and is certainly related to the ceremonies
   of the Masonic Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia, from which the
   Golden Dawn was indirectly spawned.
   Some scholars have suggested that there is a more direct
   connection between the Golden Dawn and Masonry: a historical one,
   via a possible source of the mysterious ``Cipher Manuscripts''
   which Westcott and Mathers used to construct the Outer Order
   rituals. Several sources have alluded to the existence of
   little-known Masonic groups in the early 19th century which have
   an eerie similarity with the Golden Dawn. Specifically, there
   have been two (possibly related, possibly identical)
    1. The Loge zur aufgehenden Morgenrothe, a Masonic Lodge in
       Frankfurt with a primarily Jewish membership. Referred to in
       French as the Aurore naissante, (both titles meaning ``Rising
       Dawn''), this group was founded by three Masons connected
       with the Rite of Strict Observance of von Hund. In 1817, a
       subsidiary Lodge was formed in London by the Duke of Sussex,
       the Grand Master of the United Grand Lodge of England. In
       1822, it was closed by an Anton Wolf, who might have been a
       representative from the Mother Lodge in Frankfurt.
    2. A Qabalistic College in London, also known as the Chabrath
       Zerek Aour Bokher (``Society of the Shining Light of the
       Dawn''), formed around 1810 by a Johannes Friedrich Falk,
       from Hamburg, Germany. Mentioned mainly by Kenneth
       Mackenzie's Royal Masonic Cyclopaeida, this organization
       might not actually have existed.
   Both of these supposed London-based Lodges have been argued to be
   the infamous second ``Hermanoubis'' Temple of the Golden Dawn.
   The Cipher Manuscripts, which were probably written circa
   1860-1870, are similarly argued to have come indirectly from one
   of these groups, via such varied persons as Kenneth Mackenzie,
   Lord Bulwer-Lytton, or Frederick Hockley. Further research is
   definitely required to prove any of these hypotheses. For more
   information, see:
   Gilbert, R. A., 1990,
          ``Provenance Unknown: A Tentative Solution to the Riddle
          of the Cipher Manuscript of the Golden Dawn,'' in Wege und
          Abwege: Beitraege zur europaeischen Geistesgeschichte der
          Neuzeit, ed. A. Goetz von Olenhusen (Freiburg: Hochschul
          Verlag), p. 79.
   Heisler, R. 1989,
          ``Precursors of the Golden Dawn,'' in Cauda Pavonis:
          Studies in Hermeticism, v. 8, no. 1, 1-4.
   Kuntz, Darcy. 1996,
          The Complete Golden Dawn Cipher Manuscipt (Edmonds,
          Washington: Holmes Publishing Group). [Reprints Gilbert's
          article listed above.]
   Prinke, R. T. 1987,
          ``The Deeper Roots of the Golden Dawn,'' in The Hermetic
          Journal, 36, 16.
   (7) Who was Israel Regardie? 
   Dr. Francis Israel Regardie (17 Nov 1907 - 10 Mar 1985, motto Ad
   Maiorem Adonai Gloriam, or ``To the greatness of the Lord'') was
   a relative latecomer in the Golden Dawn, joining Felkin's Hermes
   Temple of the Stella Matutina in about 1934. He is most
   infamously known for publishing The Golden Dawn a few years
   later, thereby breaking his oath of secrecy. Every Order ritual,
   from 0=0 to 5=6, was included, along with many of the original
   ``knowledge lectures'' and ``flying rolls'' (instructional
   manuscripts) written by Mathers and Westcott.
   Although initially spurned by his G.D. peers, lately Regardie has
   been seemingly vindicated. The publishing of the Order material
   in a relatively complete form has certainly kept the Golden Dawn
   from being lost to the mists of time. Many of the modern G.D.
   Orders claim an ``apostolic succession'' through Regardie, so it
   seems he has been sufficiently forgiven. During the last few
   years of his life, he authorized a few different Golden Dawn
   groups to carry on his work (see Part IV).
   Recently, Regardie's role in the propagation of Golden Dawn
   documents has been called into question. Bill Heidrick, the Grand
   Treasurer General of the O.T.O., wrote on 14 April 1994:
     ``Regardie's Golden Dawn was a joint enterprise between Israel
     Regardie and Gerald Yorke. Yorke supplied the materials, as
     Francis (I. Regardie) told me himself. Yorke had warning from
     his family as far back as the days of Equinox Vol.I never to
     allow publicity of his connections with either Crowley or the
     Golden Dawn. This is not surprising in that the family was and
     is not very far removed from the succession to the British
     throne. When G.D. was to be published this ban was serious
     enough for Gerald to act as a silent partner and unannounced
     co-author with Francis. Toward the end of his life Gerald did
     relax his privacy a little, to the extent of taking an
     occasional ``bow'' in print and supporting Ellic Howe with an
     intro to The Magicians of the Golden Dawn. The largest public
     collection of Golden Dawn and Crowley MSS is the Yorke
     collection in the Warburg Institute at the University of
     London. That is Gerald's collection, fortified with materials
     provided by Karl Germer.''
   Although Yorke probably helped Regardie track down papers for the
   later book, The Complete Golden Dawn System of Magic, it is
   difficult to assess his impact on the earlier published
   materials. Regardie's own initiatory status in the 1930s has also
   been under dispute. He claimed that he was an Adept (5=6) of the
   Hermes Temple, but some have claimed that he could not have
   achieved this degree in the short time he was a member. However,
   several recent letters and papers have been found (and posted to
   the Usenet news group alt.magick) which indicate clearly that
   Regardie had received the 5=6 grade from the Hermes Temple.
   Hopefully this material will be published eventually in a
   complete and permanent form.
   Some claim that Regardie, later in life, attained the higher
   degrees of 6=5 and 7=4, and was glad to finally receive true
   initiation (contrasted to the ceremonies of the ``Inepti'' at
   Hermes Temple). Harvey Newstrom, a member of the Hermetic Order
   of the Golden Dawn that Regardie sponsored in the 1980s, wrote on
   18 April 1994:
     ``Regardie was given a certificate of 6=5 after visiting New
     Zealand. This was an honorary degree that was intended to show
     respect and affirmation of Regardie's work. Regardie was not a
     member of the New Zealand branch of the G:.D:., he did not
     study from them, he did not undergo examination from them nor
     did he demonstrate the completion of the requisites for that
     level. Most importantly, Regardie still maintained the title,
     signatures, magical insignia, and other ensigns of office as
     appropriate for his actual level. He never upgraded his own
     assesment to claim any higher degrees. After Regardie's death,
     the New Zealand group also sent a 7=4 certificate filled out
     for Regardie. Dated after his death, this certificate
     certainly was an honorary one.''
   Patrick Zalewski, in Secret Inner Order Rituals of the G.D.,
   claims that Regardie ``...participated in a 6=5 ceremony as one
   of the Temple Officers'' during his visit to new Zealand in
   August 1983, but the issue of his initiatory status is left
   unclear. The certificate in question was reproduced in facsimile
   in early editions of The Complete Golden Dawn System of Magic,
   and was dated 10 October 1984, before his death.
   (8) What connection did Aleister Crowley have with the Golden
   Edward Alexander (Aleister) Crowley (1875-1947) joined the
   Isis-Urania Temple of the G.D. in November of 1898, and quickly
   advanced to the grade of Adeptus Minor by January of 1900.
   Crowley grew distasteful of the pretentious dealings between many
   of the members, and of the fact that many were initiated for no
   other reason than their ``worldly prosperity.''
   His ``history lection'' (with the line numbers removed for
   readability) from Liber LXI vel Causae A.'.A.'. tells his side of
   the story:
     ``In 1900 one P., a brother, [Crowley, ``Perdurabo'']
     instituted a rigorous test of S.R.M.D. [Mathers] on the one
     side and the Order on the other. He discovered that S.R.M.D.,
     though a scholar of some ability and a magician of remarkable
     powers, had never attained complete initiation: and further
     had fallen from his original place, he having imprudently
     attracted to himself forces of evil too great and terrible for
     him to withstand. The claim of the Order that the true adepts
     were in charge of it was definitely disproved. In the Order,
     with two certain exceptions and two doubtful ones, he found no
     persons prepared for initiation of any sort. He thereupon by
     his subtle wisdom destroyed both the Order and its chief.''
   While the last statements certainly are not literally true (both
   the G.D. and Mathers long surviving Crowley's defection), it
   certainly sheds light on the ``birth'' of the Golden Dawn's first
   ``pseudo-messiah,'' as Gerald Yorke termed Crowley.
   Crowley's subsequent magical work, too lengthy to describe
   completely here, was a unique and singular accomplishment. His
   reception of Liber AL vel Legis in Cairo in 1904 marked the
   beginning of a ``new aeon'' of the world, and of the
   religion/philosophy of Thelema. Many of the details of ritual and
   magical doctrine that Crowley continued to propagate, however,
   were intimately connected with his beginnings in the Golden Dawn.
   The two primary esoteric Orders which Crowley either created or
   placed his unique imprint upon are the A.A. and the O.T.O. (Ordo
   Templi Orientis).
   The A.A., which some claim stands for ``Astron Argon,'' ``Aster
   Argos,'' or ``Argentum Astrum'' (Greek and Latin for ``Silver
   Star''), was Crowley's idea of the ideal and individualized
   initiatory regimen. Most lineages (which usually are passed down
   on a one-on-one basis) follow the Golden Dawn-like grade system
   and magical/mystical ``curriculum'' set down in Crowley's ``One
   Star in Sight,'' which is in Magick in Theory and Practice. Also,
   the recently published Mystical and Magical System of the
   A.'.A.'., by James Eshelman, is a good source of information on
   this subject (see the Reference list, Part V, below).
   The O.T.O. was founded in 1895 by Karl Kellner as a
   concretization of various Masonic rites, and also as a vehicle
   for the teaching of tantric-based based sexual magic. In 1922,
   Crowley took over as Outer Head of the Order (OHO), and modified
   its focus to conform to his ``new aeon'' Thelemic revelations.
   Although still an initiatory organization, the O.T.O. is
   concerned mainly with the social, economic, and interactive
   aspects of magic and Thelema, rather than on presenting an
   individualized system of spirituality (as is the regime of the
   A.A.). The O.T.O. today is at its largest size ever, with over
   3000 members, and many of the active North American G.D. groups
   listed below have some cross-membership with the O.T.O..
   Crowley's Equinox, especially the recently written Volume III,
   Number 10, is a good reference for the O.T.O., as is the Web site
   for the U.S. Grand Lodge.
   (9) How does one get started? 
   First, there exist various other ``getting started'' documents on
   magic and esoteric spirituality posted to several Usenet news
   groups (e.g., alt.magick, alt.pagan, and many others), as well as
   on many Internet WWW and FTP sites. A good example is Christopher
   Ward's Notes to a Neophyte. Since the suggestions below come from
   a Golden Dawn point of view, these other more general documents
   may also be of interest.
   Prior to the publication of most of the Golden Dawn material, the
   only real way to ``get started'' was by petitioning an active
   Temple, being accepted, and going through the Neophyte (0=0)
   initiation ceremony. While this is still an option, easy access
   to the bulk of the Golden Dawn material has opened up other, more
   solitary avenues of approach. What follow are two basic
   techniques (one meditative, one ceremonial) that have helped many
   to begin on the road to their ``Great Work.''
   (A) The Neophyte Meditation 
     This exercise in concentration and stilling the mind contains
     two general components - breathing and visualization - but
     some helpful hints about relaxation and concentration might be
     in order first. Make yourself comfortable (sit or lay down)
     and try to relax the body. Starting at the feet, clench and
     release various muscles, and work up the body to the head and
     face. Think of your warm blood coursing through your body,
     enriching each part as it relaxes. If you fall asleep, that's
     fine, but you may want to find a better time of day to do
     this. Breathe from the abdomen, not the chest.
    1. Rhythmic Breathing: The ``fourfold breath'' is suggested for
          + inhale fully, while counting 1-2-3-4
          + hold the breath, while counting 1-2-3-4
          + exhale fully, while counting 1-2-3-4
          + hold the breath, while counting 1-2-3-4
    2. Visualization: From the First Knowledge Lecture (cf.
       Regardie's Golden Dawn),
        ``Let the Neophyte consider a point as defined in
                mathematics - having position, but no magnitude -
                and let him note the ideas to which this gives rise.
                Concentrating his faculties on this, as a focus, let
                him endeavor to realise the Immanance of the Divine
                throughout Nature, in all her aspects.''
       This ``primitive point'' (in Hebrew, NQVDH RAShVNH) can be
       fruitfully compared to the initial point of the creation of
       the universe, as is described in the Zohar: The Book of
       Enlightenment (translated below by Daniel Chanan Matt, NY:
       Paulist Press, 1983):
        ``A blinding spark flashed
                within the Concealed of the Concealed
                from the mystery of the Infinite,
                a cluster of vapor in formlessness,
                Deep within the spark gushed a flow
                imbuing colors below,
                concealed within the concealed of the mystery of the
                The flow broke through and did not break through its
                It was not known at all
                until, under the impact of breaking through,
                one high and hidden point shone.
                Beyond that point, nothing is known.
                So it is called Beginning,
                the first command of all.''
       A comparison can also be made to various modern scientific
       theories of the ``Big Bang,'' which is thought to have
       occurred within an infinitesimally small point which
       encompassed all of the present-day universe.
   (B) The Lesser Banishing Ritual of the Pentagram (LBRP) 
     The ritual act of ``banishing'' stems from an old notion that
     magic must be performed in a purified environment, and that
     ``evil spirits'' (or undesired ``unconscious thought forms'')
     must first be told to vacate the premises. A more recent
     interpretation is that of delineating a ``sacred space'' at
     the beginning of a ritual, apart from the mundane world. The
     focus is often on a military-like attention to detail, which
     helps to construct this impregnable ``circle'' around the
     The following banishing ritual was given to Neophytes of the
     Golden Dawn to get them prepared and accustomed to dealing
     with the spiritual realm. It is also a frequently used
     component at the beginning and end of many rituals.
     First, perform the Qabalistic Cross:
     * Face East, and take a steel dagger in your right hand.
     * Touch your forehead , and say . . . ATEH (Thou art)
     * Touch your breast , and say . . . MALKUTH (the kingdom)
     * Touch your right shoulder, and say . . . Ve-GEBURAH (and the
     * Touch your left shoulder, and say . . . Ve-GEDULAH (and the
     * Clasp your left hand over your right hand hand before you,
       and say . . . Le-OLAM (for ever)
     * Turn the dagger upwards, and say . . . AMEN
     Next, while facing the East, trace a ``banishing pentagram of
     Earth,'' in the order 1-2-3-4-5-1, in the air in front of you:
                     banishing pentagram of earth
     If your browser cannot view the above image, here is an
     approximate text equivalent:
                       4     5
                        1   3

     Simultaneously with tracing the pentagram, ``vibrate'' the
     Hebrew God-name IHVH.
     Rotate clockwise, tracing out one quarter of a circle in the
     air with your dagger, and face South. Trace the pentagram
     again, and vibrate ADNI.
     Rotate clockwise, and face West. Trace the pentagram again,
     and vibrate AHIH.
     Rotate clockwise, and face North. Trace the pentagram again,
     and vibrate AGLA.
     Rotate clockwise, and come back around to the East, closing
     the circle.
     Upon completing the Circle, form a Great Cross (feet together,
     arms extended horizontally with with palms forward), close
     your eyes, and recite the archangelic powers stationed about
     the Circle:
                         ``Before me, Raphael
                          Behind me, Gabriel
                       At my right hand, Michael
                       At my left hand, Auriel.
                   Before me flames the Pentagram -
                Behind me shines the Six-Rayed Star.''
     Follow with the Qabalistic Cross again, and you're finished.
     An interesting analysis and interpretation of this ritual,
     along with some personal commentary as to its potential, is
     given below:

  From:       markk@cypress.West.Sun.COM (Mark Kampe)
  Subject:    a lesser banishing
  Newsgroups: alt.magick
  Date:       31 Oct 1994 16:45:34 GMT

  The words are widely known, but it occurred to me that I've never seen
  a discussion of the melody and harmonies that give them meaning.  Surely
  like the Tao, ``the tune that can be told is not the true tune.''  None,
  the less, I thought I would try to describe some of the experiences that
  have accompanied some of my attempts at a LBRP.

  P.S. ... For those who know the words,
              please sing along, and tell me how the tune works for you.
           For those who have your own tunes,
              would you consider trying to share one?
           For those who don't haven't tried the song,
              this may not make much sense at all.
  0.    I begin with receptive silence, first bringing the room into
        order, then bringing my body into repose, then my breathing
        into measured rhythm, and finally my thoughts.  I cannot begin
        this work until I have ceased doing other things.

  1.    Using my father's dagger I trace the circle, and the cross,
        addressing myself to the ritual.  It seems a bit like an
        introduction (to the One ``who needs no introduction'' :-).
        The real purpose, however, is to remind me where I am, and
        why I have come here ... and it does that pretty effectively.
        Establishing my relationship to the power is indeed an important
        preliminary to the remainder of the ritual.

  2.    Facing the rising sun, I inhale and look for the word that
        brought about the creation.  I gaze through the letters that
        symbolize the ne-plus-ultra and try to find the sound that
        they represent.  This is the word I need to trigger my own
        creation today.  When the Yod becomes clear, I am the Heh
        that receives it, and the Vau they become wells within me,
        giving rise to the Heh that I return to the cosmos, and
        in so doing, animate the first sigil.

        I pause, as the light kindles, to experience the resonance
        between the ultimate power of creation, and the power of
        creation within myself.

  3.    Turning from sunrise to the sun at full Zenith, I reflect on
        the awesome majesty of creation, and the power that permeates it.

        As I contemplate the inconceivable wonder of the universe
        (with all of its myriad worlds and souls), I search for the
        name of its Lord ... so that I may trace my next sigil in
        celebration of Hir glory.

        Once again, I pause to wait for the channel to come to
        life and savor my small glimpse of the almighty.

  4.    Turning towards the setting sun, I reflect on the glory
        I have been privileged to behold.  I note my breathing,
        and the implicit continuous prayer it offers in praise to
        the spirit of life.  ``Ruach'' means both ``breath'' and ``spirit,
        and in our breathing we speak the holy name more perfectly
        than words ever could.

        I seek to make each breath a more ardent and perfect prayer,
        and an act of communion.  When my breath has become the
        name of life, I carve a sigil into which that principle can
        be enshrined, and welcome the spirit of life into my circle.

  5.    Turning to the north, I see nothing, and so confront myself -
        body and spirit, ego and instrument of divine will, animal
        and god.  What am I and what am I to become?  How am I to
        resolve a myriad of aspirations and urges?  The answer is not
        in allowing myself to become a battleground for a thousand
        balkanized aspects of my own nature.  The answer lies in
        finding purpose and becoming an instrument of that purpose.

        And so I acknowledge my need, and my inescapable obligation
        to understand and serve the divine will.  As I speak the oath
        that binds me to that will, I carve the sigil that must be
        simultaneously the instrument of my destruction and the key to
        my salvation.

  6.    Turning again to the rising sun, and standing in the
        center of these channels, I look forward to find the
        spirit of guidance.  My needs and aspirations have
        been anticipated, and provided for.  I need not want
        for guide or teacher.  I have but to open my eyes and
        see them.

  7.    The power of life swells behind me and within me,
        compelling me to action and empowering me to achieve.
        Life is that which does, and that which becomes.
        I am life, and the power is within me ... or perhaps
        more properly, I am a manifestation of that power.

  8.    On my right, I reach out to the light that vanquishes all
        darkness.  I find therein perfection, protection and a power
        beyond that of life.  I recognize it for what it is.  I
        recognize that it is always there, and that I can always draw
        upon it (if I have but eyes to see it).  I open myself to the ligh

  9.    On my left, I reach out to a world bathed in divine
        light and see its richness, beauty, and perfection.
        It shames me to recognize how seldom I see the world
        so illuminated, and I am grateful to be reminded again
        of its true nature.

  10.   I stand surrounded by, and attuned to, four open
        channels for divine energy.  Standing naked in the
        focal point, I reach out, simultaneously, to each.
        As the four streams of light converge in me, each
        carrying its own energy into me, I feel the parts
        of myself that are being brought into resonance.
        Finally, like a laser, pumped at the right frequency,
        I burst forth with a nova-like brilliance, now a source
        of light myself ... and unlike the sigils through which
        this energy was channeled, I am wholely of this world.
        I am the connection point between heaven and earth.  I am
        the vehicle through which the divine Will achieves worldly

  ...   Having obtained what I came for, I again affirm/acknowledge
        my relationship to the source.  (I occasionally feel like
        offering thanks ... but that would be missing the point :-)

II. A Brief History of the Golden Dawn 
   The history of the Golden Dawn seemingly begins in 1881, when
   Samuel Liddell Mathers met Dr.'s William Wynn Westcott and
   William Robert Woodman, and entered the Societas Rosicruciana in
   Anglia, a scholarly group devoted to studying Rosicrucian and
   Hermetic topics, open to Master Masons only. Westcott took young
   Mathers under his wing, and Mathers quickly advanced to the top
   of that organization.
   The ``magical mottoes'' of these three men may provide insight
   into their characters. Mathers took the mottoes 'S Rioghail Mo
   Dhream, or ``Royal is my tribe'' in Gaelic, and Deo Duce Comite
   Ferro, or ``With God as my leader and the sword as my
   companion.'' Westcott was known as Sapere Aude, or ``Dare to be
   wise,'' and Woodman was known as Magna Est Veritas Et
   Praevalehit, or ``Great is the truth and it shall prevail.''
   The next key development was in 1887 with the ``discovery'' of
   the famous Cipher Manuscripts. Modern scholarship seems to point
   to prolific Masonic author Kenneth Mackenzie as their author, but
   whether the Cipher Manuscripts were found in a Masonic library,
   bought from a used bookshop, or fabricated whole-cloth, these
   documents contained summaries of the first five Golden Dawn
   initiation rituals (0=0 to 4=7). They were written in a simple,
   well-known alphabetic code based on the Polygraphiae of Johann
   Trithemius, and complete facsimiles and transcriptions have been
   published in, e.g., Kuntz's The Complete Golden Dawn Cipher
   Manuscipt (see Part V, below). Mathers took to them with a
   passion, and fleshed them out into full-blown rituals of
   ceremonial magic. Written on the manuscripts was the address of a
   certain Fraulein Sprengel (Sapiens Dominabitur Astris, or ``The
   wise one will be ruled by the stars'') in Germany, but many
   believe that Fraulein Sprengel was invented by Westcott to
   provide a sense of continental authority and legitimacy to this
   Even if not directly German in origin, many of the magical
   concepts inherent in the Golden Dawn system were strongly
   influenced by continental European sources. Without a doubt, the
   works of the esteemed French occultist Eliphas Levi (1810-1875)
   were known to the originators of the Golden Dawn system. Levi's
   students, such as Stanislas de Guaita, Josephin Peledan, and
   Gerard Encausse (``Papus'') gathered in societies such as the
   ``Kabalistic Rose+Croix'' and the ``Catholic Rose+Croix of the
   Temple and the Grail.'' From the 1880s to the 1910s, these
   groups, or Salons, gathered to study ancient texts, practice
   magic and meditative techniques, and spread their occult
   knowledge to the public.
   It was a year later, in 1888, that Mathers, Westcott, and Woodman
   inaugurated the first British Temple, Isis-Urania, and began to
   admit men and women as Neophytes. In 1890, Mathers married Mina
   (``Moina'') Bergson, sister of philosopher and writer Henri
   Bergson, and in 1892 they moved to Paris. The Ahathoor Temple was
   established, and it was not too long after that they
   clairvoyantly ``brought forth'' the Second Order (5=6 to 7=4)
   rituals and teachings. Some of the 5=6 ritual material, however,
   came from the Cipher Manuscripts. The first Vault of the Adepti,
   a required piece of ``scenery'' for Second Order rituals, was
   built in London, in Thavies Inn off Holborn Circus.
   The following list of original G.D. Temples came originally from
   Ithell Colquhoun's biography of Mathers, Sword of Wisdom, but has
   been updated extensively with the help of several independent
   scholars. Any additional information, of course, would be greatly
   appreciated. (It goes without saying that the actual existence of
   Temples 1 and 2 is highly doubtful, but I include representative
   information about them from written histories and conjectures for
                     ORIGINAL GOLDEN DAWN TEMPLES 
   1. Licht, Liebe, und Leben 1808 ? Frankfurt: ``Fraulein
   2. Hermanoubis 1883 ? London: Hockley, Mackenzie, Woodford
   3. Isis-Urania 1 Mar. 1888 London: Westcott, Woodman, Mathers
   4. Osiris 8 Oct. 1888 Weston-super-Mare: B. Cox
   5. Horus 10 Oct. 1888 Bradford: T. H. Pattinson
   6. Amen-Ra 8 Jun. 1893 Edinburgh: J. W. Brodie-Innes
   7. Ahathoor 3 Dec. 1893 Paris: S. L. M. Mathers
   8. Thme (Ihme?) 1897 Chicago: G. W. Wiggs
   9. Thoth-Hermes 1897 New York: C. and E. D. Lockwood, M. J.
   10. Isis [Alpha et Omega 1] May 1900 West London: E. W. Berridge
   In 1900, a schism rocked the Order. Ms. Annie Hornimann, a member
   of the Isis-Urania Second Order, led a ``revolt'' against Mathers
   over several magical, political, and monetary issues. Anger led
   to posturing, which eventually led to litigation concerning the
   ownership of the temple furniture and other magical trappings.
   Also at about this time, many remaining G.D. members (including
   the Matherses) were duped by a Mr. and Mrs. ``Theo Horos,''
   a.k.a. American confidence tricksters Frank Jackson and Editha
   Salomon, who claimed to be high-grade members. Many lost a good
   deal of money and property, but the Horos couple were convicted
   of fraud and the rape of a 16 year old girl in 1901. However, the
   G.D. was dragged through the mud of ignorant publicity and was
   never again the same. Because of this publicity, Mathers changed
   the name of his Order to Alpha et Omega, and the dissenting
   London members in the Isis-Urania Temple changed the name of
   their Order to the Hermetic Order of the Morgenrothe.
   The problems were not over, however. In 1903, Aleister Crowley,
   who previously seemed the ``magical heir apparent'' to Mathers,
   defected to form his own organizations (see Question 8 above).
   Six years later, Crowley published G.D. rituals and doctrine in
   his journal, The Equinox, but its limited readership precluded
   the kind of impact that Regardie's subsequent publishing efforts
   produced. Also in 1903, the Isis-Urania Temple in London split
   into two further dissenting groups: (1) the Stella Matutina,
   under Robert W. Felkin, William Butler Yeats, and many others,
   and (2) the Holy Order of the G.D. (and later, the Independent
   and Rectified Rite), under A. E. Waite. These two groups differed
   primarily on the importance of magic (1) versus mysticism (2),
   but internal politics also had a say in this split.
   With the ``golden age'' of the G.D. over, its members went their
   myriad ways. The Golden Dawn work, however, has been continued by
   many groups. Most noticeably, the Stella Matutina and its varied
   offshoots have continued in an unbroken line until as late as the
   1970s. Also noteworthy is the contribution of Violet Mary Firth
   (Dion Fortune; from Deo Non Fortuna, or ``God, not chance''), who
   formed the Fraternity (later, Society) of the Inner Light, which
   functioned for many decades as an alternative, but closely
   related, group.
   What follows is a far-from-complete listing of these succeeding
   organizations, originally culled from Colquhoun's Sword of
   Wisdom. Note that the list ends near the beginning of the 1970s.
   Most likely, any more recent groups are listed in Part IV, the
   list of active Golden Dawn groups, below.
   The Sphere c. 1897 London: F. Farr
   Hermetic Society of the Morgenrothe 1902 London: Felkin,
   Brodie-Innes, Bullock
   Order of Light 1902 Bradford: T. H. Pattinson
   Stella Matutina (S.M.) [Amoun Temple] 1903 London: R. W. Felkin
   Holy Order of the G.D. 1903 London: Waite, Blackden, Ayton
   A .'. A .'. (Astron Argon) c. 1907 London: A. Crowley, G. C.
   Zos Kia Cultus c. 1910 London: A. O. Spare
   Cromlech Temple [Solar Order] 1910 Edinburgh, London: J. W.
   Smaragdum Thalasses/Whare Ra (S.M.) 1912 New Zealand: R. W.
   Ordo Templi Orientis [orig. c. 1895] 1912 London: A. Crowley
   Alpha et Omega 2 (Northern) 1913 Edinburgh, London: J. W.
   Hermes Temple (S.M.) 1916 Bristol: R. W. Felkin
   Merlin Temple (S.M.?) 1916 London: R. W. Felkin
   Secret College in London (S.M.?) 1916 London: R. W. Felkin
   Guild of St. Raphael 1916 London: Felkin and Roseveare
   Fellowship of the True Rosy Cross [Salvator Mundi] 1916 London:
   A. E. Waite
   Shrine of Wisdom c. 1916 Hermon Hill, N. London: A. E. Waite?
   Nuada (Druid Order) c. 1916 Clapham, London: G. W. M. Reid
   Alpha et Omega 3 (Southern) 1919 London: M. M. Mathers
   Ptah Temple (Alpha et Omega ``No. 10'') 1919 Philadelphia: L.
   Geise, E. Dame
   Atoum Temple (Alpha et Omega ``No. 20'') 1920 Los Angeles
   School of Ageless Widsom c. 1920 Chicago: P. F. Case
   Themis Temple (Alpha et Omega ``No. 30'') 1921 San Francisco?
   Fraternity/Society of Inner Light 1922 London: Dion Fortune
   Guild of the Master Jesus c. 1925 London: Dion Fortune
   Hermanoubis Temple c. 1930 Bristol
   Universal Order c. 1935 London and Brook, Surrey
   Builders of the Adytum [orig. c. 1920] c. 1937 Los Angeles: P. F.
   Order of the Morning Star c. 1945 London: M. Montalban
   Garderian Wicca c. 1952 London: G. B. Gardner
   Order of the Cubic Stone 1965 Wolverhampton: H. T. Howard
   Order of the Sacred Word c. 1967 London: R. Hunt
III. Golden Dawn Minutae 
   There are several bits of miscellaneous trivia that seem
   appropriate to include in this FAQ, mainly because they do not
   appear in any of the published Golden Dawn books and might be
   considered helpful or useful. However, they are not actually
   ``answers'' to questions that have been ``frequently asked!"
   I will attempt to expand this section as possible, but will limit
   this information to material not easily found elsewhere.
     * Mythical Members:
       Several books, such as Gilbert's Golden Dawn Companion and
       Kuntz's Golden Dawn Source Book, contain detailed lists of
       the members of the various historical Golden Dawn Temples.
       These have been taken from actual membership rolls and other
       primary source material. What might be interesting, though,
       is a list of famous people who have been claimed to be
       members of the Golden Dawn, but actually were not. This may
       help ``set the record straight'' and avoid the propagation of
       inaccuracies in new overviews and histories of the Golden
       It seems quite clear from the available reference material
       (but there is probably never 100 percent certainty) that the
       following people were NOT registered members of any Golden
       Dawn organization:
          + E. A. Wallis Budge, author and Egyptologist
          + Lord Edward Bulwer-Lytton, author
          + Arthur Conan Doyle, author
          + H. Rider Haggard, author
          + Fredrick Hockley, famous Freemason
          + Eliphas Levi (a.k.a. Alphonse Louis Constant), author
            and occultist
          + Kenneth MacKenzie, author
          + Edward Munch, artist
          + Jean Marie Ragon, author
          + Sax Rohmer (a.k.a. A. S. Ward), author
          + Bram Stoker, author
          + August Strindberg, author, poet, and artist
          + Revd. A. F. A. Woodward, famous Freemason
     * The Neophyte Chemicals
       In published versions of the Neophyte (0=0) initiation
       ceremony, an impressive chemical reaction is presented to the
       new initiate. Because of the desire for secrecy (self-imposed
       or not) about these ceremonies, this FAQ is not really the
       place to discuss the meaning or appearance of this reaction.
       However, the names of the actual chemicals used are not
       usually included in the published descriptions of this
       ceremony. Thus, I would like to present them here, and
       acknowledge the posting of Tim S. Walker (on 13 May 1998) to
       the Usenet news group alt.magick, as the source of this
       information. The two chemicals to be combined are:
                        Ferric Ammonium Sulfate
                           Sodium Salicylate
       When working with chemicals, please take all necessary safety
IV. List of Active Golden Dawn Temples and Related Organizations 
     * I am not in any way affiliated with any of these
       organizations. This information comes from advertisements in
       various esoteric publications, the Internet, and personal
       correspondence. Many of these organizations charge a great
       deal of money for their teachings, and I am in no way
       condoning that practice. I'm just providing the information.
     * I am greatly indebted to the following individuals for
       providing a great deal of useful information about many of
       the Orders listed below. Much of the detail in the listings
       (and elsewhere in this FAQ) is attributable to their diligent
       detective work.
     Christopher Ward, Al Billings, Baird Stafford, Harvey
     Newstrom, Richard Leo Stokes, Luke Roberts, Naia Kirkpatrick,
     Vere C. Chappell, Gregory Peters, Bill Heidrick, Alexander
     Walker, Christeos Pir, Lainie Petersen, Vivienne O'Regan, Dora
     Gyn/QBL, James A. Eshelman, Darcy Kuntz, Laura Jennings-Yorke,
     Pat Zalewski, ``Wizard,'' Art de Hoyos, Mitch Henson.
     * Almost by definition, a directory of ``secret'' societies and
       groups is going to be woefully incomplete, and perpetually
       out of date. If anyone has any additional information, or
       spots any errors in the following, please let me know, so we
       can make this list as complete as possible.
   I will start this list with a classified advertisement from the
   Winter 1991 issue of Gnosis magazine, which parallels my own
     ``The Golden Dawn is not a commercial enterprise. Initiation
     is not for sale. There are Temples that hold valid initiatory
     succession from the original Mother Temple in London which are
     quietly doing the Great Work. The Order exists. When the
     student is ready, the teacher will appear.'' 
   Anyway, the following list attempts to be in alphabetic order:
     * August Order of Light 
       London, York, and Bradford, U.K.
       Descended from the original Horus Temple of the G.D. in
       Bradford, this group was originally comprised only of members
       of the Masonic Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia, but as of
       1994, there were about 87 men and women. One of the Temples
       has a correspondence course, but they seem very selective in
       who participates. Unlike some other G.D. Orders, their
       ``Inner Order'' seems to encompass the grades of 8=3 and
     * August Order of the Mystic Rose 
       P.O. Box 71, Mt. View, CA 94042
       Described briefly by Mary K. Greer in Women of the Golden
       Dawn, this group is affiliated with Robert Word, a scholar of
       Golden Dawn history. When requesting information, Greer
       suggests a donation of $2 to help cover mailing costs.
     * Builders of the Adytum (B.O.T.A.) 
       5101-05 North Figueroa St., Los Angeles, CA 90042, TEL
       (323)-255-7141, FAX (323)-255-4166
       Established by Paul Foster Case and/or Ann Davies as an
       ``outer vehicle of the inner school,'' this group is
       descended from the original New York Thoth-Hermes Temple (in
       that the founders were Chiefs of Thoth-Hermes). Its Second
       Order was originally called ``The School of Ageless Wisdom.''
       See Case's True and Invisible Rosicrucian Order, and his
       other books, for more information. Free brochure available.
       Correspondence course. For the first year or so, one pays
       $10/month, and obtains a self-initiation ritual, seven weeks
       of instruction on ``Practical Occultism,'' then about a year
       of Tarot instruction. The Tarot material is highly
       recommended by many. If one is near a BOTA Temple or Proanos,
       members can participate in rituals, Temple services, and
       initiations. Local study groups are also in many cities. See
       also their Web page. There is also a listserv study-group
       mailing list.
     * Church/Brotherhood of Light 
       Dept. G - 2341 Coral St., Los Angeles, CA 90031-2916, TEL
       Correspondence study available since 1932. Not really part of
       the G.D. tradition, but related in spirit. Originated as The
       Hermetic Brotherhood of Light in Scotland in the late 1870s,
       members such as Peter Davidson circulated lessons on magic
       (sexual magic in the higher degrees, influenced by the
       Tantric approach of ``Max Theon,'' or Louis Maximillian
       Bimstein) mainly through the mail. In the 1890s, a lodge
       formed in France which contained many prominent French
       occultists. Also, Davidson moved to Georgia and founded a
       Christian mystical community. In 1915, Elbert Benjamine (``C.
       C. Zain'') came from Georgia to California, and assimilated
       Davidson's material into 210 lessons in 22 books, and began
       the Church of Light in 1932. Its focus is mainly on astrology
       (the ``Religion of the Stars''), but there are fifty
       initiatory degrees as well. For more details, see their Web
       page. See also an article by Joscelyn Godwin in the quarterly
       journal Theosophical History, and his new book The Hermetic
       Brotherhood of Luxor (York Beach, Maine: Samuel Weiser),
     * Fraternity of the Hidden Light / Fraternitas LVX Occulta
       P.O. Box 5094, Dept. S, Covina, CA 91723, USA
       P.O. Box 70524, 2938 Dundas St. West, Toronto, Ontario M6P
       Founded in the mid-1980s by Paul A. Clark and others, this
       ``modern day repository of the Hermetic Arts'' offers a
       quality correspondence course, as well as teaching and
       ceremonial work in Lodges and Temples in the USA and Canada.
       A ``direct lineal descendant'' of the Golden Dawn via a
       reconstituted ``Rosicrucian Order of the Alpha et Omega in
       America,'' F.L.O. also assimilates traditions from B.O.T.A.,
       as well as ``new revelations from continual research.'' Color
       and sound based healing techniques are an important part of
       the curriculum. Fees and suggested donations are said said to
       be very reasonable. Lodges in Los Angeles, Dallas, Boston,
       Denver, and Toronto. A study group is also forming in the
       Chicago area (phone contact: 773-381-5701). Christopher Ward
       lists himself as an email contact for anyone who wants more
       information, and he maintains the Home Page for the F.L.O..
     * Hermetic Fellowship 
       P.O. Box 20424, Portland, OR 97294-0424
       A non-profit religious organization, not formally connected
       to the Golden Dawn, but was established in 1995 for seekers
       interested in the Western Esoteric Tradition, Rosicrucianism,
       Qabalah, alchemy, Gnosticism, Neo-Paganism, and the Grail
       Quest. Their Priestesses and Priests can perform, e.g., legal
       marriages in the state of Oregon. Much more information can
       be found on their WWW site., or one can email Adam Forrest.
     * Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn 
       P.O. Box 1757, Elfers, FL 34680-1757
       Re-inaugurated by Israel Regardie on 26 June 1982 in
       Columbus, GA. Regardie had called together three unacquainted
       fraters and one soror who were reviving the G.D. in the
       United States in the 1970s. The Temple associated with Chic
       Cicero, ``Isis-Urania, No. 18,'' originated in Columbus,
       Georgia in the late 1970s, and is now in a nearby state.
       Israel Regardie visited, consecrated, and autographed this
       Temple's Vault of the Adepti. On 10 April 1995, Chic Cicero
       filed for a U.S. Federal Trademark for the name ``Hermetic
       Order of the Golden Dawn,'' with the expressed purpose of
       preserving the tradition for all members of valid Golden Dawn
       groups. For more information, one can send email or see their
       WWW site.
     * Hermetic Order of the Morning Star International 
       (formerly: Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn International)
       (formerly: Hermetic Order of the Eternal Golden Dawn)
       14050 Cherry Avenue, Suite R-159 - Dept. G, Fontana, CA
       92337, USA
       Imperator Temple of Isis, Mighty Mother, no. 12 . . . .
       Tehuti Temple, no. 13, Vancouver, BC . . . . . . . . .
       Sanctuary of Michael, San Diego, CA . . . . . . . . . .
       contact via Isis
       Sanctuary of Amon-Ra, Houston, TX . . . . . . . . . . .
       Sanctuary of Hermanubis, Los Angeles, CA. . . . . . . .
       Sanctuary of Auriel, Athens, GA . . . . . . . . . . . .
       Sanctuary of Asar, Harrisburg, PA . . . . . . . . . . .
       opening soon
       Complete correspondence course available. Individual
       guidance, full membership if accepted. Send them email for a
       free information packet with an entrance application. This
       Order claims an initiatory lineage via the Mathers' Alpha et
       Omega Temples in America. Initial dues for the Outer Order
       are $150 (1 year's mailings: $30, dues $65, Neophyte
       initiation fee $55), and adepts are available by phone to
       answer questions. Initiations can be done in person or
       astrally, and the study material is said to be very
       comprehensive. There is no Thelema or sex magic. As of early
       1998, the H.O.M.S.I. published the magazine ``The Golden Dawn
       Quarterly,'' $22/year, as well as the members-only newsletter
       ``Tablets of Thoth.'' More information can be obtained on
       their WWW site, or via email.
     * Invisible Temple No. 0, Ordo Roseae Rubeae et Aurea Crucis 
       Various Locations, Europe and America
       An independent branch of Israel Regardie's Hermetic Temple
       and Order of the Golden Dawn, via Christopher Hyatt (Alan
       Miller). The 6=5 and 7=4 grades are conferred on qualified
       adepts who have performed the prerequisite work in the Outer
       Order, and are able to manage a Golden Dawn Temple. Members
       known to be in California, Maryland, Minnesota, Texas,
       Virginia, and Washington, DC. Most male members are also
       high-grade Masons.
     * New Zealand Guild of Alchemists 
       P.O. Box 5115, Greenmeadows, Napier, New Zealand
       A quasi-G.D. organization, originally given a warrant in 1990
       by an ex-Whare-Ra Adept (Percy Williams, 6=5) to found a
       Temple called 'Horus.' The Horus Temple was founded in Hawkes
       Bay by Greg Boag, according to the material on the Te-Neteru
       Sanctuary Web page (see below). Currently they are oriented
       mainly toward PRS alchemy (both psychological and practical),
       but it is not known if this group continues to initiate into
       the Golden Dawn proper.
     * O.H.A.D. 
       26 Rue Francois Bonvin, 75015, Paris, France
       Mentioned briefly by Mary K. Greer in Women of the Golden
       Dawn. When requesting information, Greer suggests a donation
       of $2 to help cover mailing costs.
     * Order of the Aurum Solis (Order of the Sacred Word) 
       BCM Tessera, London, WC1N 3XX, U.K.
       Initiatory organization described in Denning and Phillips'
       Magical Philosophy series. While seemingly related to the
       Golden Dawn, its symbolism is more ``Byzantine'' (or
       ``Ogdoadic'') than Rosicrucian, although many similar
       traditions (Kabbalah, alchemy, neo-Platonism) are drawn from.
       Working groups exist in England, America, continental Europe,
       and West Africa, and entry is currently via invitation only.
       A Lodge Master in San Diego, CA maintains a Web page with a
       bit of extra information.
     * Order of the Thelemic Golden Dawn (Novus Ordo Aurora Aurea) 
       1626 N. Wilcox Ave., no. 418, Los Angeles, CA 90028, USA
       P.O. Box 8163, Salem, MA 01970-8163 (Temple of the Strength
       of Hadit)
       Also Temples of Babalon (New York) and Ra-Hoor-Khuit (Denver)
       A quasi-G.D. organization based mainly on Crowley's religion
       of Thelema. No longer affiliated with New Falcon Publications
       or the Israel Regardie Foundation, there is no charge for
       courses or initiations, but a modest yearly donation is
       requested. The Thelemic Golden Dawn is affiliated with the
       Aleister Crowley Foundation (ACF). Services offered include
       group and self initiations, classes, correspondence lessons,
       and newsletters. Many of their online rituals, manifestos,
       and philosophical papers are archived on their WWW site, or
       are available via email.
     * Ordo Rosae Rubeae et Aureae Crucis (and Hermetic Order of the
       270 North Canon Drive, Suite 1302, Beverly Hills, CA 90210
       Affiliated with Cris Monnastre, and related to Regardie's
       re-inauguration of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn in
       1982, this group published a full-page ``Manifesto
       Fraternitatis'' in the Fall 1995 issue of Gnosis magazine,
       under the direction of the Secret Chiefs of the Ordo Argenti
       Astri (the Third Order). They proclaimed the abrogation of
       previously published passwords, and mentioned their
       possession of initiation rituals for all grades of the Second
       and Third Orders. More information is available about these
       Orders, as well as the ``United Confederation of Independent
       and Autonomous Temples,'' at their WWW site (or this
       alternate site), or via email.
     * Osiris, Khenti-Amenti Temple (G.D.) 
       Hollywood, CA
       Founded by a triad of Patricia Behman, Laura Jennings, and
       Peter Yorke under Israel Regardie's guidance in 1980. Closed
       in 1983. It has also been claimed that this Temple was
       founded solely by Monnastre (Behman), that Jennings and Yorke
       only took the 1=10 degree then left, and that it remains
       active today, under the aegis of Monnastre's Ordo Rosae
       Rubeae et Aureae Crucis, and under a different name.
     * Oxford Golden Dawn Occult Society 
       P.O. Box 250, Oxford, OX1 1AP, UK
       A group which aims to ``disseminate authentic information
       about the occult,'' and which organizes speakers, workshops,
       and conferences. They offer training in Oxford for students,
       have monthly meetings and a public annual conference in
       October, and publish a journal ``Nuit-Isis.'' Their London
       Lodge has a membership of about 40, and meets regularly at
       sites around London. Associate membership is 5 UK pounds, and
       details can be found by telephoning Mogg Morgan at +44
       (0)1865 243671, by email, or on their WWW site.
     * Phoenix Temple 
       P.O. Box 4523, St. Louis, MO 63108
       I know nothing about this Temple - even if it is a Golden
       Dawn group at all! It was, however, listed along with other
       Golden Dawn groups in an Internet text file, circa 1995. Any
       information would be appreciated.
     * Ra Horakhty Temple (G.D.) 
       31849 Pacific Highway South, Suite 107, Federal Way, WA 98003
       AIO International, 900 Meridian East 19-342, Puyallup, WA
       98371-1242, TEL (206)-840-2024
       Founded by Laura Jennings and Peter Yorke in 1983 in Santa
       Monica, CA. Also said to have been chartered by Patrick and
       Chris Zalewski in 1985. In 1990, the Temple was moved to
       Washington, and most of the active members moved as well. The
       Outer Order curriculum is offered via a correspondence
       course, with fees of $27 per month for instruction, and a
       one-time fee per grade ($50, as of 1990) for materials. Inner
       Order dues are $100 per year. Each student has a personal
       advisor, and Inner Order instruction or grades are offered to
       qualified Outer Order graduates. The sequence of classes
       circa 1990 was: (1) Introduction, (2) Neophyte Class (basic
       knowledge lectures, pentagrams), (3) Zelator Class (geomancy,
       alchemy, hexagrams). Higher grade work was done individually,
       with $25 for information packets and $50/hour consultations.
       Classes on Tarot, astrology, Kabbalah, anatomy/physiology,
       and ``quantum physics for laymen'' are offered. Seven day
       ``magical retreats'' have also been occasionally offered.
       (May be inactive?)
     * Servants of the Light 
       P.O. Box 215, St. Helier, Jersey (Channel Islands), U.K. JE4
       P.O. Box 6563, Syracuse, NY 13217-6563, USA
       Descendant of Dion Fortune's Society of the Inner Light.
       Dolores Ashcroft-Nowicki, Director of Studies (she succeeded
       W. E. Butler). The fifty-six lesson course (US $10/lesson) is
       based on Qabalah, the Grail Legend, and the Arthurian mythos,
       and lasts several years. Students and graduates of the course
       may join Lodges in England and Scotland, Stockholm, Vancouver
       BC, and the U.S. (Atlanta, Denver, and soon one in the
       Northeast). The SOL is non-profit, and publishes its own
       Tarot deck and a House magazine. They also hold several
       large-scale seminars/retreats (see large advertisements in
       Gnosis magazine). Email contacts are Peter Cawley and Fran
       Keegan, and there is also a WWW page.
     * Societas Hermetica LVX Aureae-Rubeae 
       Calgary, Canada (full address to come?)
       A Golden Dawn Temple which offers ``safe and practical''
       teachings, either via a correspondence course or in-person
       initiations. The fees for the Neophyte grade include (in
       Canadian dollars) $40 for initiation, $20 for dues, and/or
       $40 for the correspondence course.
     * Societas Rosicruciana (Masonic) 
       Soc. Ros. in Anglia (50 Colleges in England and abroad)
       Soc. Ros. in Scotia (5 Colleges in Scotland)
       Soc. Ros. in Civitatibus Foederatis (32 Colleges in the U.S.
       and abroad)
       Originally founded in 1866 by Robert Wentworth Little as an
       esoteric study organization for Master Masons. The three
       founding members of the Golden Dawn were high-grade members,
       and many features of the Soc. Ros. (such as the names of the
       Rosicrucian grades) made their way into the Golden Dawn.
       Harold Voorhis' comprehensive history of the Soc. Ros. (see
       the References below) contains much more information. The
       Masonic qualification still exists today, and membership is
       only by invitation. The California College of the S.R.I.C.F.
       maintains a WWW page.
     * Society of the Inner Light 
       38 Steele's Road, London NW3 4RG, U.K.
       Continuation of Dion Fortune's (and William Gray's) Society
       of the Inner Light. Still active and continuing to provide a
       correspondence course.
     * Star and Cross 
       P.O. Box 25541, Dallas, TX 75225, USA
       Home study course: Dion Fortune's inner teachings, ``Western
       Tradition of the Mysteries.'' Rumored to have a strong
       emphasis on Jungian psychology.
     * Temple of Thelema 
       222 North Manhattan Place, Los Angeles, CA 90004 (Harpocrates
       Temple 1)
       P.O. Box 415, Oroville, CA 95965 (Nuit Mother Temple)
       P.O. Box 58, Carmichael, CA 95609 (Silver Star Proanos 2)
       680 Queens Quay, #704, Toronto, ONT M5V 2Y9 (Star of the
       North Temple 3)
       P.O. Box 27901-774, San Francisco, CA 94127 (Agape Temple 4)
       P.O. Box 441474, Indianapolis, IN 46244 (Ruby Star Proanos 5)
       222 N. Manhattan Place, Los Angeles, CA 90004 (Shemesh Israel
       Temple 6)
       P.O. Box 237, Chimacum, WA 98325 (Seattle area Proanos)
       500 N. Guadalupe St, Suite G418, Santa Fe, NM 87501 (New
       Mexico Proanos)
       This group, also an outer vehicle ``in the service'' of
       Crowley's A.A., was founded in 1989 by Jim Eshelman, Phyllis
       Seckler, and Anna-Kria King. Updated to conform to the Law of
       Thelema, the Temple of Thelema is the ceremonial and
       initiatory vehicle of the College of Thelema, founded in 1973
       by Phyllis Seckler (Soror Meral). COT shares the contact
       addresses given above, and also publishes a bi-annual journal
       called Black Pearl. (Their journal In the Continuum,
       published between 1973 and 1996, is still available in back
       issues.) T.O.T.'s innovations to the G.D. system are
       substantial, as they can be utilized as ``lower octave''
       introductions to the A.A., but they do conform to the
       original formulae of the Cipher Manuscripts. For more info,
       see their WWW site.
     * Templo L.V.X. Thot 
       Buenos Aires, Argentina
       A Spanish-speaking Golden Dawn organization which offers
       physical instruction, initiations, and correspondence courses
       in Qabalah, astrology, tarot, alchemy, Enochian magic,
       tattvas, geomancy, meditation, path travels, gematria,
       Egyptian mysteries, and ritual magic. They are associated
       with the ``United Confederation of Independent and Autonomous
       Temples.'' For more information contact them via email or see
       their WWW site.
     * Te-Neteru Sanctuary (B.W Et Custosi Tutelae) 
       Southland, New Zealand
       Although primarily descended from a group known as the
       ``Guardians of Grace and Blessing,'' this group also traces a
       descent from the Whare-Ra Temple of the Stella Matutina, via
       a Frater Fiat Lux, who joined Whare-Ra in 1936 and died in
       1994. This Order holds a charter to initiate to the level of
       Adeptus Major, but operates mainly independently of the G.D.
       tradition. Their emphasis is ``Craft-oriented and based upon
       practical magic.'' They do not charge fees for membership,
       initiation, or training. For more information, see their WWW
     * Thoth-Hermes Temple (G.D.) 
       Wellington (or Auckland?), New Zealand
       Founded by Patrick and Chris Zalewski around 1980 to succeed
       Whare-Ra, but has been reported to have been defunct since at
       least 1989, due to lack of Temple officers, apparently. There
       may still be an active Temple of this lineage in Auckland.
       One can contact Pat Zalewski c/o Llewellyn World Wide, P.O.
       Box 64383-873, St. Paul, MN 55164-0383, USA, or via email at or
V. Useful References 
   This listing of books and journal articles related to the Golden
   Dawn is nowhere near being a complete or comprehensive
   bibliography. This is simply a beginning-point for interested
   readers to learn more from independent sources other than this
   FAQ. Many of these books themselves contain bibliographies and
   reference lists which can be used to further explore the wealth
   of published Golden Dawn material. 
   Case, Paul Foster. The True and Invisible Rosicrucian Order (York
   Beach, Maine: Samuel Weiser), 1985.
   Cicero, Chic, and Cicero, Sandra Tabatha, eds. The Golden Dawn
   Journal (St. Paul, MN: Llewellyn Publications): Book I:
   Divination, 1994, Book II: Qabalah - Theory and Magic, 1994, Book
   III: The Art of Hermes, 1995, [Book IV:] The Magical Pantheons,
   Cicero, Chic, and Cicero, Sandra Tabatha. Self-Initiation into
   the Golden Dawn Tradition: a Complete Curriculum of Study for
   both the Solitary Magician and the Working Magical Group (St.
   Paul, MN: Llewellyn Publications), 1995.
   Colquhoun, Ithell. Sword of Wisdom: MacGregor Mathers and the
   ``Golden Dawn'' (New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons), 1975.
   Crowley, Aleister. Magick: Liber ABA, Book Four (York Beach,
   Maine: Samuel Weiser), 1997. Consists of Part I: Mysticism, Part
   II: Magick (Elementary Theory), Part III: Magick in Theory and
   Practice, Part IV: Thelema: The Law. Published in various
   editions and combinations since the 1920s.
   Crowley, Aleister. The Holy Books of Thelema (York Beach, Maine:
   Samuel Weiser), 1983.
   Denning, Melita, and Phillips, Osborne. The Magical Philosophy
   (in 3 volumes: I: The Foundations of High Magick, II: The Sword
   and the Serpent, III: Mysteria Magica), (St. Paul, MN: Llewellyn
   Publications), 1981.
   Eshelman, James A. The Mystical and Magical System of the
   A.'.A.'. (Oroville, CA: College of Thelema), 1993.
   Fortune, Dion. The Mystical Qabalah (London: Ernest Benn), 1935.
   Gilbert, R. A. The Golden Dawn Companion: a Guide to the History,
   Structure, and Workings of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn
   (Wellingborough, Aquarian Press), 1986.
   Gilbert, R. A. The Golden Dawn Scrapbook: the Rise and Fall of a
   Magical Order (York Beach, Maine: Samuel Weiser), 1997.
   Gilbert, R. A. The Golden Dawn: Twilight of the Magicians
   (Wellingborough, Aquarian Press), 1983.
   Gilbert, R. A. ``Magical Manuscripts: an Introduction to the
   Archives of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn,'' in Yeats
   Annual, No. 5, ed. by Warwick Gould, 1987, pp. 163-177.
   Gilbert, R. A. ``MSS in a Black Box: the Golden Dawn Papers of
   Dr. William Wynn Westcott,'' in Yeats Annual, No. 6, ed. by
   Warwick Gould, 1988, pp. 227-233.
   Greer, Mary K. Women of the Golden Dawn: Rebels and Priestesses
   (Rochester, Vermont: Park Street Press), 1995.
   Harper, George Mills. Yeats's Golden Dawn: the Influence of the
   Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn on the Life and Art of W. B.
   Yeats (London: Macmillan), 1974.
   Howe, Ellic. ``Fringe Masonry in England 1870-85,'' in Ars
   Quatuor Coronatorum, Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge,
   vol. 85 (1972), pp. 242-295.
   Howe, Ellic. The Magicians of the Golden Dawn: a Documentary
   History of a Magical Order, 1887-1923 (London: Routledge and
   Kegan Paul), 1972.
   King, Francis X. Magic: The Western Tradition (London: Thames and
   Hudson), 1975.
   King, Francis X. Modern Ritual Magic: The Rise of Western
   Occultism (Dorset, UK: Prism Press), 1989. Originally published
   as: Ritual Magic in England: 1887 to the Present Day (London:
   Neville Spearman), 1970.
   Kuntz, Darcy. The Complete Golden Dawn Cipher Manuscipt (Edmonds,
   Washington: Holmes Publishing Group), 1996. Number 1 in the
   ``Golden Dawn Studies Series.''
   Kuntz, Darcy. The Golden Dawn Source Book (Edmonds, Washington:
   Holmes Publishing Group), 1996. Number 2 in the ``Golden Dawn
   Studies Series.''
   Levi, Eliphas. Transcendental Magic (New York: Samuel Weiser),
   Mathers, S. L. MacGregor, Ritual Magic of the Golden Dawn, edited
   and introduced by Francis King, additional material by R. A.
   Gilbert. (Rochester, Vermont: Destiny Books), 1997. Originally
   published as Astral Projection, Ritual Magic, and Alchemy.
   McIntosh, Christopher. The Rose Cross and the Age of Reason:
   Eighteenth Century Rosicrucianism in Central Europe and its
   Relationship to the Enlightenment (Leiden: E. J. Brill), 1992.
   Raine, Kathleen. Yeats, the Tarot, and the Golden Dawn, Number 2
   in the Series ``New Yeats Papers.'' (Dublin: Dolmen Press), 1972.
   Regardie, Israel. The Complete Golden Dawn System of Magic
   (Phoenix, Arizona: Falcon Press), 1984.
   Regardie, Israel. The Golden Dawn (St. Paul, MN: Llewellyn
   Publications), 1st ed. (Chicago: Aries Press) 1937-1940; 2nd ed.
   1969; 3rd ed. 1970; 4th ed. 1971; 5th ed. 1986; 6th ed. 1989.
   Regardie, Israel. What You Should Know About the Golden Dawn
   (Phoenix, Arizona: Falcon Press), 1985. Previously published as
   My Rosicrucian Adventure, 1936.
   Schuchard, Marsha Keith Manatt. Freemasonry, Secret Societies,
   and the Continuity of the Occult Traditions in English
   Literature, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas at Austin
   (UMI No. 7524957), 1975.
   Torrens, Robert G. The Secret Rituals of the Golden Dawn
   (Northamptonshire: Aquarian Press), 1973.
   Voorhis, Harold van Buren. A History of Organized Masonic
   Rosicrucianism: Societas Rosicruciana (privately published:
   S.R.I.A., Robert C. Patey, Secretary General), 1983.
   Waite, Arthur Edward. The Brotherhood of the Rosy Cross (London:
   William Rider and Son), 1924.
   Yates, Frances A. The Rosicrucian Enlightenment (London:
   Routledge and Kegan Paul), 1972.
   Zalewski, Patrick J. Golden Dawn Enochian Magic (St. Paul, MN:
   Llewellyn Publications), 1990.
   Zalewski, Patrick J. Kaballah of the Golden Dawn (St. Paul, MN:
   Llewellyn Publications), 1993.
   Zalewski, Patrick J. The Secret Inner Order Rituals of the Golden
   Dawn (Phoenix, Arizona: Falcon Press), 1988.

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