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The Solitary Practitioners Basic DRUIDISM FAQ

Newsgroups: alt.pagan
From: (Brendan P Myers)
Subject: Druidism FAQ  Non-denominational
Date: 4 Apr 1995 20:47:07 GMT

The Solitary Practitioner's Basic DRUIDISM FAQ
version 2    April 1995
compiled by CATHBAD  

Thanks be to Raven, Jaguar, JJ Kane, Kami Landy, Iarwain, Branwen
Heartfire, and everyone at Nemeton-L.  Special thanks to The Gods!

This document is distributed on the net as a public service.  It may be
copied at will, provided the authorship, version, and date remains intact.

        1.      Introduction
        2.      Why Druidism in the 20th Century?
        3.      Who were the Druids?
        4.      What are the Celtic Nations?
        5.      What are the sources by which we can know the Druids?
        6.      What do modern Druids believe?
        7.      Did the Druids practice human sacrifice?
        8.      Why haven't you called them "priests" yet?
        9.      What are the Druidic holy days?
        10.     What did the ancient Druids believe?
        11.     What Gods did the Druids worship?
        12.     Was Stonehenge a Druidic temple?
        13.     What about Glastonbury?
        14.     Are there any other Druidic sites?
        15.     Was Merlin a Druid?
        16.     What modern Druid organizations exist?
        17.     Internet Contacts
        18.     Reading List

        I am a solitary practicing Druid, or Celtic Pagan, or
what-have-you; labeling myself I thought to be unnecessary.  I don't
belong to an order or coven, not because I feel these groups do not have
merit, but because they do not always agree, and because at the moment I
prefer solitary practice.  I have Celtic ancestors.  I like learning about
the ancient Celts, specifically their beliefs and practices, and I have a
desire to emulate them in a manner valid for myself and for this century.
        If you agree with one or more of these statements, you are
probably drawn to Druidism, and this FAQ is for you.

        Why not?  :)  Actually, there are a number of good reasons for
modern people to consider Druidism.  Some see it as a way to reconnect,
or "ground" themselves in history, or to improve their relationship with
their ancestors (if they are of Celtic descent).  Some are attracted by
the relationship with the natural world that a Druid cultivates, or by
the artistic, creative methods used to build that relationship.
        There are those who choose Druidism over other forms of
neopaganism.  Perhaps a reason for that is because Druidism is not only a
branch of neopaganism, but also the subject of academic study.  Druidism
is often of interest to archaeologists, historians, and mythographers who
don't necessarily consider themselves Druids, or even remotely pagan.
Thus, there is a wealth of serious academic material available concerning
the Druids, and many discover Druidism through it.
        Finally, there are those who choose Druidism over more
conventional religions that are more accepted and widespread, such as
Christianity.  Christianity belongs to a middle-eastern language,
culture, and mythology-set; Druidism belongs to the Indo-European set
from which we in the West inherit virtually all our other cultural
practices, including our languages.  An exploration of Druidism is for
many people a resurgence in Western Europe's indigenous spirituality.
Many seek Asatru to revive Northern Europe's spirituality for much of the
same reason.  If mainstream religions cannot provide answers to those
"deep", spiritual, and philosophical questions, Druidism or another form
of neopaganism is often the only answer.

        I suppose the main thing that can be said about the Druids is
that they were members of a professional class in their culture, the
Celtic Nations of Western Europe and the British Isles.  (The Druids
were not an ethnic group; their culture, the Celtic culture, was.)  They
filled the roles of judge, doctor, diviner, mage, mystic, and clerical
scholar.  Though through history we have lost much, if not most,
information about them, though this will be discussed later.

        Alba (Scotland), Breizh (Brittany), Cymru (Wales), Eire
(Ireland), Kernow (Cornwall), and Mannin (Man).

        The main sources we have on what they did are Roman historians,
who wrote on them as they were in the process of conquering Gaul (what is
now France; a variant of Gaelic is still spoken in Brittany) so
there is that political problem, and they equated Celtic deities with
Roman ones as well.  The main authors are Julius Caesar, Pliny, Tacitus,
Strabo, and Diodorus Siculus.
        But in my point of view, the best sources are the mythologies.
There we can read of what the Druids did, how they behaved, what some of
them said, and though the medieval manuscripts that preserved them were
written by Christian monks, much wisdom yet remains there.  In Ireland
the chief myth cycles are the Ulster Cycle, the Fionn Cycle, and the
Invasion Races.  In Wales, the major myths are contained in a book called
The Mabinogion.  In this century, a number of folklore collections were
made of remaining oral-tradition stories, the best of which are
W.B.Yeats' "Mythologies" and Lady Gregory's "Gods and Fighting Men".
        If you were to expand your search to include historical and
archaeological records, you might have more luck, and may arouse less
suspicion if your area is not very pagan friendly.  In fact what you will
be doing is precisely what the Druids did, for they had to study so many
academic, legal, and spiritual subjects they became walking encyclopedias.
        The problem is that the Druids were the subject of a number of
persecution-s and conquests, not only by the Romans, but also by later
Christians.  Some Druidic wisdom was censored, evolved into something
unrecognizable, or just plain lost.  A modern person seeking the Druid's
path must attempt to reconstruct the wisdom based on the sources
discussed above.  The Romans never invaded Ireland, so that country
became a haven for Druidic learning for a while.  After St. Patrick and
St. Columcille, Ireland evolved an unique and beautiful blend of
Christianity and Druidism, headquartered on the Isle of Iona, which was
later to be eradicated by the invading English.  Catholicism eventually
became a point of national identity in Ireland (and without it they may
never have become independent).

        I don't know.  There are so many different ways to be a Druid
nowadays....:)  Actually, the reason for this is because of the problem in
reconstructing any ancient religion: there are so many ways to interpret
the record.
        Since their beliefs included concepts like balance of
forces in nature, reincarnation, and the interaction of this world with
the Otherworld, it is safe to say that the ancient Druids would stand for
environmentalism, justice, spiritualism, etc. if they were alive today.
The Druids fostered artistic (particularly poetic) innovation, and were
excellent astronomers.  Thus, many modern Druids are also scientists and/or
artists.  Druidism provides a methodology to allow one's artistic
capability and scientific interest to become part of one's spirituality.

        The Romans recorded that they sacrificed humans, specifically
condemned criminals.  Judicial executions were no different elsewhere
in Europe, including Saxony.  The Romans wrote that such victims were tied
into huge wicker man-shaped effigies and burned alive.  The archaeological
record does reveal a number of sacrificial deaths, such as
"triple-deaths" where the victim was drowned, stoned, and impaled on a
spear simultaneously.  Some mythologies describe one person's
life being sacrificed so that a terminally ill VIP would survive,
thus indicating a belief in a cosmic balance of forces.
        However, there is some debate over this; it may have been anti-Druid
propaganda.  Julius Caesar had good reason to make the Druids look bad,
because, after all, he was trying to conquer them.  It would fuel
interest in his campaign back home if he could prove that the Celts
engaged in such barbaric practices.  On the other hand, the Romans would
kill people in gladitorial games, for the entertainment of the people.  The
Druids, if they did sacrifice people, could claim religious sanction.
The archaeological record is ambiguous if such sacrifice was judicial
or ceremonial, or even if it occurred at all.
        Rest assured that modern Druids do not sacrifice humans.

        The best word for them would seem to be "priests", yet I am reluctant
to use it for two reasons"  The Romans never used it, and because Druids
didn't preach to congregations as priests do.  Rather, they had a clientele,
like a mystic or a shaman would have.  Caesar and his historians never
referred to them as priests, but perhaps they could not recognize them as
such; the Roman priesthood, officiating over an essentially political
religion, were primarily teachers and judges, with less emphasis on being
seers or diviners.

        There was a series of fire-festivals, occurring at
12-week intervals, and spaced between the seasonal festivals of
solstices and equinoxi (thus, a festival every six weeks.)  These
fire-festivals would last three days, beginning at sunset on the first
day, and would be the best time for sacrifices and divinations.  They are:

Samhain (Nov. 1) Feast of the Dead, and beginning of the new year.  Death
came before Life in the Druidic cycle, because before new growth can
occur, there must be room for it.  On this day the boundary between this
world and the Otherworld is thinnest, and so it is a time to remember all
those who died during the year.

Imbolc (Feb 1) The Return of Light.  The ewes begin lactating around this
time of year, and it is a sign that winter is coming to an end.  Perhaps
divinations were cast to determine when spring would come (from this
practice we get Groundhog Day.)

Beltaine (May 1)  The Fires of Bel.  Spring has arrived, and the people
give thanks.  This was a day of fertility and life, often the choice day
for marriages.

Lughnasad  (Aug 1)  The Feast of Lugh.  The essential harvest festival,
to give thanks to the Earth for Her bounty.  The name is a reference to
the Irish god Lugh of the Long Hand, son of the Sun.

        I have heard that Australians who practice these festivals do it
in reverse order, because these dates are for northern-hemisphere
seasons.  It would make sense for them to celebrate Beltaine on Nov.1, for
        In Wales, there was an annual festival called the Eisteddfod,
which was a bardic musical and poetry competition.  It still exists,
alternating between North and South Wales.

        Great bonfires were built on hilltops and kept burning throughout
the whole of the fire festivals.  By day, there would be carnival-like
celebrations, and by night, serious rituals.  Cattle were driven between
bonfires to purify them, and couples would run and leap over the flames,
often completely naked, also for purification (and it was fun!)  Some
sites were centers for the "perpetual chant", where Druids in rotation
would chant incantations without stop; during festivals the entire
community would join the chant.

        The poetic tradition in Druidism comes from the method the Celts
used to trace their lineage and history.  Written records were distrusted
for the most part, and though a runic writing system called Ogham did
exist, it wasn't used for much beyond burial markers and landmarks.
Druids in training had to learn all the Bardic poetry, in a manner we
would call sensory deprivation.  Poetic inspiration was an important
spiritual practice, which the Welsh have focused on in their eisteddfod.
In Irish myth there was a deity of poetry (Brigid).
        Oak was the most important symbol in druidic lore, as it is strong,
tall, and very long-lived.  Mistletoe was said to have healing qualities.
Other important trees were the yew, for its offspring grew from the dead
stump of its parent, representing perpetually-regenerating life.  The
Ogham alphabet was a list of tree-names.  Trees are important because
they are bridges between the realms of Land and Sky, they communicate
Water between these realms.  When the Realms of Land, Sea and Sky meet, as
within a tree or at a seashore for example, great power could manifest,
and such places were best for poetic composition or spell-casting.
Stones could channel, store, and direct earth-energy, and thus were used
for markers, set in circles, and libations were poured over them in
        Fire-worship is strong as well, but doesn't fit the Greek
four-element picture.  Fire is a thing unto itself, with the dual
qualities of destructiveness and cleansing power.   It is a spiritual
principle, because it is always reaching up to the sky.  This may be why
they built those hilltop fires.  Poetic inspiration is said to be a fire
in the head, so Brigid is a fire-deity as well.

        This depends on the nation you look at.  Ireland had different
gods than Wales, who had further different gods than Gaul.  Another point
to consider is not only were gods known by different names, but many of
the names were deemed too holy to pronounce aloud.  (thus the common
oath:  "I swear by the god my tribe swears by".)  Here is a brief, by no
means authoritative, list of deities.

In Ireland:
        the Tuatha de Danann (Tribe of the Goddess Danu) was the name of
the pantheon, for the Sidhe (faeries) were descended from Her.  Some
names you may recognize:
        Lugh, the Long Handed, Son of the Sun.
        Dagda the Good (good not by his moral disposition but by the
diversity of his skills)
        Morrigu, Babd, and Macha (a triple goddess of War.)
        Brigid (a triple goddess of Fire, Poetry, and the Forge)
        Diancecht, god of healing
        Manannan mac Lir, god of the sea and master of magic
In Wales:
        Welsh mythology tends to focus on the actions of heroes, and
their interaction with gods.
        Arawn, lord of the Annwyn (the underworld)
        Math ap Mathonwy, the quintessential wizard
        Pwyll, lord of Davyd
        Rhiannon, (wife of Pwyll) Goddess associated with horses and the
        Lyr, god of the sea
In Gaul:
        Gaulish deities are the focus of Caesar's records.  He drew
analogies between his own Roman gods and those he discovered in Gaul.
        Herne the Hunter
        Taranus, Teutates
        Esus, Hu'Hesu, the Dying God
        Cernunnos, Master of the Wild Hunt, or the Animal Lord/Green Man
        Epona, The Horse Goddess

Not all modern Druids worship the gods by name.  There is some evidence
that the Druids of old believed in a kind of universal Life Force,
flowing from a central place (such as the Irish Well of Wisdom or the
Welsh Spiral of Annwyn), to and from all living things.  Perhaps the best
modern description is Obi-Wan's description of the "Force", from the
famous Star Wars films.  :)

        Perhaps.  The question of who build Stonehenge is one of academic
debate.  The theory that most people find acceptable is that since
carbon-14 dating places the construction of Stonehenge before the rise of
Druidism, they did not build it, however that does not rule out the
probability that they knew how to use it.  The solar and stellar
alignments Stonehenge embodies would not have been lost on an
intelligentsia so well versed in astronomy.

        Some folkloric traditions and mythographic examinations suggest
that Glastonbury Tor is the mythic Isle of Avalon.  If, for example, the
nearby river were to flood, the Tor would be an island.  A certain
thorn tree is said to be the descendant of the staff of Joseph of
Arimathea, which was changed into a thorn tree when he set it there
(the Thorn is sacred to faeries!), when he brought the Grail to Britain.
Avalon means "Isle of Apples", and apple orchards do grow there.  Some
archaeologists believe that, if one accounts for centuries of erosion,
the sides of the Tor are terraced into the shape of a Cretan Maze
pattern.  Whether or not the region is Druidic, anyone who has meditated
by the nearby Chalice Well knows it is a holy place.

        There are hundreds of stone circles dotting Britain and Ireland.
The Hebrides of Scotland are famous for them.  In Ireland, there are many
sacred wells dedicated to St. Bridget, am obvious borrowing from the
earlier goddess Brigid.  There is Newgrange, a temple/tomb/center for
initiation rites in Ireland, thousands of years older than the Pyramids,
which is constructed to allow sunlight into the inner chamber on
Midsummer sunrise only.

        Yes, he was, and one of the last in Britain before the wisdom was
lost.  The Arthurian legends are unique because they embody the delicate
transition period between Druidism and Christianity.  Christianity was
well entrenched as the religion of the nobility, yet Druidism remained
in the form of folk-practices.  Misty islands and otherworldly hunting
expeditions, which comprise much of Arthurian legend, clearly originate
from the older Celtic mythologies where such encounters are signs of the
presence of the Otherworld.  And perhaps all those "wise hermits", that
the Knights are always running into, are Druids in hiding.

        In the U.K., there is the Order of Bards, Ovates, and Druids.
OBOD was founded in 1717, and has a correspondence course available
worldwide.  Write to:
                PO box 1333
                Lewes, E. Sussex, England
                BN7 3ZG

        In the U.S.A., there is Ar nDraiocht Fein, meaning roughly "Our Own
Druidism".  ADF is the fastest growing Druid organization in the world.
Write to:
                PO box 516
                E. Syracuse, NY   13057-0516

        Keltria is a positive neo-pagan Druidic path focusing on the
Celtic pantheons and the triads of Ancestors, Nature Spirits, and Gods.
They offer several resources including a book of ritual, a quarterly
journal and a correspondence course for members.  Write to:
                P.O. Box 33284
                Minneapolis, MN  55243

        Nemeton-L (a mailing list):
        Other copies of this FAQ, and other assorted related files on

        Attribution note:  I got this list from on
Nemeton-L.  I've left the authorship notes within it as intact as

from Lone Star / Val LS :
[reformatted by Raven]
Celtic reading list I pulled from PODSnet Wicca a
couple of years ago:
By: Rowan Moonstone UPDATED 6 JULY 1991
*** Marks especially good books. Read these FIRST!!
Keep in mind, this is simply a listing of the books that
I have found useful.   Question everything.
    A.E.(GEORGE RUSSELL); "The Candle of Vision",
Quest Books, Theosophical Pub. 1975
    ALFORD, VIOLET; "The Hobbyhorse & Other
Animal Masks", Merlin Press 1978
"Guide to Irish Studies in the U.S.A." 1987
*** ANWYL, EDWARD; "Celtic Religion in Pre-christian
Times", Archibald Constable & Co. 1906
    ARTOS, ALLEN; "Arthur, The King of Light", Lorien
House 1986
    ASHE, GEOFFREY; "The Ancient Wisdom", London
    BAIN, GEORGE; "Celtic Art: The Methods of
Construction", Dover Pub. 1973
    BARBER, CHRIS; "Mysterious Wales", Paladin
Press 1983
    BOASE, WENDY; "Folklore of Hampshire & the Isle
of Wight", Rowman & Littlefield 1976
    BONWICK, JAMES; "Irish Druids and Old Irish
Religion", Arno Press 1976
*** BORD, JANET & COLIN; "The Secret Country",
Grenada 1978 ***
*** BORD, JANET & COLIN; "Mysterious Britain",
Grenada 1974 ***
*** BORD, JANET & COLIN; "Earth Rites",
Grenada 1983 ***
*** BORD, JANET & COLIN; "Sacred Waters",
Paladin Books 1986 ***
    BREFFNY, BRIAN DE, ed.; "Ireland, A Cultural
 Encyclopaedia", Thames & Hudson 1983
    BREFFNY, BRIAN DE; " The Irish World", Thames
& Hudson 1986
    BRIGGS, KATHERINE; "Abbey Lubbers, Banshees,
& Boggarts", Pantheon 1979
    BRIGGS, KATHERINE; "Nine Lives; Cats in Folklore"
Rudledge & Kegen Paul 1980
    BROWN, PETER, ed. & selected by; "Book of Kells",
Alfred A. Knopf 1980
Celtic Dragon Myth" Newcastle Pub. 1981
    CARMICHAEL, ALEXANDER; "Celtic Invocations",
Vineyard 1972
    CASTLEDEN, RODNEY; "The Wilmington Giant",
Turnstone 1983
    CHADWICK, NORA; "The Celts", Pelician 1970
    CHANT,JOY; "The High Kings", Bantam 1983
    CHMELOVA, ELENA; "Celtic Tales",
Exeter Books 1982
    CLARE, T.; "Archelogical Sites of Devon & Cornwall",
Moorland Pub. 1982
    COGHLAN, RONAN; "Dictionary of Irish Myth and
Legend", Donard Press 1979
Crown Pub. 1969
    COLLUM, PADRAIG; "Treasury of Irish Folklore",
Crown Pub. 1967
    COLLUM, PADRAIC; "Treasury of Irish Folklore",
rev. ed. Killenny Press 1967
    COLLUM, PADRAIC; "The King of Ireland's Son",
McMillian & sons 1933
    CONWAY, D.J.; "Celtic Magic", Llewellyn Pub. 1990
    COOKE, GRACE & IVAN; "The Light in Britain",
White Eagle Pub. Trust 1983
Holidays and Festivals", Charles Scribmer & Sons 1981
    CROSSLEY-HOLLAND, KEVIN, ed.; "Mabon of the
Mabinogion", Thorsen Pub. 1984
*** CUNLIFFE, BARRY; "The Celtic World", McGraw
    CURTAIN, JEREMIAH; "Myths and Folk Tales of
Ireland", Dover Books 1975
    DAMES, MICHAEL; "The Avebury Cycle", Thames
& Hudson 1977 ***
*** DANAHER, KEVIN; "The Year in Ireland", (Leinster
Leader, Ltd. 1972) Mercier Press 1972 ***
    DANIEL, GLYN & PAUL BAHN; "Ancient Places -
The Prehistoric & Celtic Sites of Britian", Constable 1987
    DAVIDSON, THOMAS; "Rowan Tree and Red Thread",
Edinburgh 1949
    DAVIES, EDWARD; "The Mythology and Rites of the
British Druids", J. Booth 1809
    DELANEY, FRANK; "The Celts", Little Brown
& Co. 1986
    DILLON, MYLES; "Early Irish Literature", U. of
Chicago Press 1948
    DINNENN, REV. PATRICK S.; "Irish- English
Dictionary", Irish Textes Society 1927
    DUGGAN, COLM; "Treasures of Irish Folklore",
Mercantile Marketing Consultants, Ltd. 1983
    DYER, JAMES; "The Penguin Guide To Prehistoric
England & Wales", Penguin Books
*** EVANS-WENTZ, W. Y.; "The Fairy Faith in Celtic Countries",University
Books 1966 ***
    FELL, BARRY; "America, B.C.", Wallaby Books 1976
    FITZPATRICK, JIM; "The Silver Arm", Paper Tiger
Press 1981
    FITZPATRICK, JIM; "The Book of Conquests",
E.P. Dutton 1978
    FLOWER, ROBIN; "The Irish Tradition", Clarendon
Press 1947/1978
    FORDE, JOHNSTON J.; "Prehistoric Britian &
Ireland", W.W. Norton & Co. 1976
Bough", (The Macmillan Company, 1951) Avenel 1981
    FRENCH, J.M.F.; "Prehistoric Faith and Worship",
London 1912
    FROUD, BRIAN & ALAN LEE; "Faeries", Harry M.
Abrams 1978
    GANTZ, JEFFERY; "Early Irish Myths & Sagas",
Penquin 1982
    GERALD OF WALES; "The History & Topography
of Ireland", Penquin 1982
    GLASSIE, HENRY; "Irish Folk History", U. of
Pennsylvannia Press 1982
    GREGORY, LADY AUGUSTA; "Visions and
Beliefs in the West of Ireland", Colin Smythe 1920/1979
Fighting Men of the Celts", John Murray 1913 ***
    GUARD, DAVID, "Dierdre: A Celtic Legend",
Celestial Arts 1977
    HERM, GERHARD; "The Celts", St. Martin's
Press 1975
    HIGGINS, GODFREY; "Celtic Druids",
Philosohpical Research Society 1977
    HOPE, MURRY; "Practical Celtic Magic",
Aquarian Press 1987
    IRISH TEXTES SOCIETY; "Poems of Egan
O'Rahilly", Rev. P.S. Dinnenn & T.O. Donough 1966
    IRISH TEXTES SOCIETY; "Duanaine Finn", Vol
VII, part 1, ed. & trans. Eoin MacNeil
    IRISH TEXTES SOCIETY; Keating, "History of
Ireland, Vol 1-4, 1902/1987
    IRISH TEXTES SOCIETY; "Adventures of
CoSuibhne Geilt", ed. & trans. J.G. O'Keefe 1913
    IRISH TEXTES SOCIETY; "Poems on the Marcher
Lords", ed. Anne O'Sullivan & Padrain O'Riain 1987
*** IRISH TEXTES SOCIETY; "Labor Gabala Erenn",
parts 1-4, Trans. R.A.S. MacAlister 1941
        JACKSON, KENNETH HURLSTONE; "A Celtic Miscellany", Penguin 1980
Irish Tradition; A Window on the Iron Age",
Cambridge 1964
    JACOBS, JOSEPH; "Celtic Fairy Tales", Dover 1963
*** JONES, GWYN & THOMAS; "The Mabinogion",
Dragon's Dream 1982 ***
*** JOYCE, P.W.; "Social History of Ancient Ireland",
Vol 1 & 2  Benjamin Blum Pub. 1968 ***
ROSS, FRANCES; "Giants & Fairies", Charles E.
Merrill . 1946
*** KINSELLA, THOMAS; "The Tain", Oxford Univ.
Press 1969 ***
    KNEIGHTLY, THOMAS; "The World Guide to
Gnomes, Fairies, Elves, and Other Little People",
Avenel Press 1978
    KNIGHT, GARETH; "The Secret Tradition in
Arthurian Legend", Aquarian Press 1983
Celts of the West", Orbis 1985
    LEAMY, EDMUND; "Golden Spears", Desmond
Fitzgerald 1911
    LEHMANN, RUTH P.M.; "Early Irish Verse",
University of Texas Press 1982
    LOGAN, PATRICK; "The Old Gods", Apple Tree
Press 1981
    LONSDALE, STEVEN; "Animals & the Origin of the
Dance", Thames & Hudson 1982
    LUCY, SEAN; "Love Poems of the Irish", Mercier
Press 1977
*** MACALISTER, R.A.S.; "Tara; A Pagan Sanctuary
of Ancient Ireland", Charles Schribner & Sons 1931 ***
    MACCANA, PROINSIAS; "Celtic Mythology",
Hamlyn Pub. 1970
    MACCULLOCH, JOHN ARNOTT; "Religion of the
Ancient Celts", Folcroft Library, 1977rep.
    MACCULLOCH, JOHN ARNOTT; "The Mythology of
all Races in Thirteen volumes; Celtic, Volume III.",
Cooper Square Pub. 1967
    MACLENNAN, MALCOLM; "A Promouncing &
Emtylogical Dictionary of the Gaelic Language",
(Scots Gaelic) Aberdeen Univ. Press 1979
    MACMANUS, SEUMAS; "The Story of the Irish Race", Devin-Adair Co. 1981
*** MACNEILL, MAIRE; "The Festival of Lughnasa",
Oxford, 1962 ***
    MARKALE, JEAN; "Women of the Celts", Inner
Traditions Int'l Ltd. 1986
    MARRIS, RUTH; "The Singing Swans & Other Irish
Stories", Fontana Lions 1978
    MARSH, HENRY; "Dark Age Britain", Dorset Press
    MATTHEWS, CAITLIN; "The Elements of The
Goddess", Element Books 1989
    MATTHEWS, CAITLIN; "The Elements of The Celtic
Tradition", Element Books 1989
    McNEIL, F. MARTIN; "The Silver Bough, Vol 1.:
Scottish Folklore & Beliefs", Cannon Gate Classic
    O'BRIEN, CHRISTIAN; "The Megalithic Odyssey",
Turnstone 1983
    O'CONNOR, FRANK; "Short History of Irish
Literature", Capricorn Books 1967
    O'CONNOR, NORREYS; "Battles &
Enchantments", Books for Libraries Press 1922/1970
    O'DRISCOLL, ROBERT; "The Celtic
Consciousness", George Braziller 1982
    O'SULLIVAN, DONALD; "Carolan: The Life &
Times & Music of an Irish Harper", Vol 1 & 2,
Celtic Music 1983
    PEPPERS & WILCOCK; "A Guide to Magical
& Mystical Sites - Europe & the British Isles",
Harper Colophon Books 1977
    POWELL, T.G.E.; "The Celts", Thames &
Hudson 1980
The Immortal", Spirit of Celtia 1984
*** REES, ALWEN & BRINLEY; "Celtic Heritage",
Oxford 1971 ***
    RHYS, JOHN; "Celtic Folklore, Welsh & Manx, Vol.I"
    ROLLESTON, T.W.; "Myths & Legends - Celtic",
Avenel Press 1985
*** ROSS, ANNE; "Pagan Celtic Britian", Rudledge
& Kegen Paul 1967 ***
*** ROSS, ANNE, & DON ROBBINS; "The Life &
Death of A Druid Prince", Summit 1989 ***
    RUTHERFORD, WARD; "Celtic Mythology",
Aquarian Press 1987
*** RUTHERFORD, WARD; "The Druids, Magicians of
the West", Aquarian Press 1978 ***
    SEYMOUR, ST. JOHN; "Irish Witchcraft and
Demonology", 1913
    SHARKEY, JOHN; "Celtic Mysteries", Thames
& Hudson 1975/1987
*** SJOESTEDT, MARIE-LOUISE; "Gods and Heroes
of the Celts", Methven & Co. Ltd. 1949 ***
    SMITH, LESLEY M.; "The Dark Age: The Making
of Britian", Schocker Books 1984
    SPENCE, LEWIS; "The Minor Traditions of
British Mythology", Rider & Co. 1948
    SPENCE, LEWIS; "The Magic Arts in Celtic
Britain", Anchor Press
    SPENCE, LEWIS; "British Fairy Origins",
Aquarian Press 1946
*** SQUIRE, CHARLES; "Celtic Myth & Legend,
Poetry & Romance", Newcastle 1975 ***
    STEWART, R.J.; "Book of Merlin", Blandford
Press 1988
    STEWART, R.J., ed.; "Merlin & Woman", Blandford
Press 1988
    STEWART, R.J.;  "Mystic Life of Merlin", Arcana
Press 1986
    STEWART, R.J.; "The Underworld Tradition",
Aquarian Press 1985
*** SUTHERLAND, ELISABETH; "Ravens & Black
Rain", Corgi Books 1985 ***
    THURNEYSON; "Old Irish Reader", Dublin
Institut for Advanced Studies 1968
*** TOULSON, SHIRLEY; "The Winter Solstice",
Jill Norman & Hobhouse 1981 ***
*** WHITE, CAROLYN; "A History of Irish Fairies",
Mercier Press 1976 ***
    WHITLOCK, RALPH; "In Search of Lost Gods",
Phaidon Press 1979
    WILDE, LADY; "Ancient Legends, Mystic Charms, & Superstitions of Ireland
With Sketches of the Irish Past"
Chatto & Windus 1925
    WILLIAMS, GWYNN A.; "Madoc, The Legend of the
Welsh Discovery of America", Oxford Univ. Press 1987
*** WILLIAMSON, JOHN; "The Oak King, the Holly
King & the Unicorn", Harper & Row 1974 ***
*** WOOD-MARTIN, W. G.; "Traces of the Elder
Faiths of Ireland, Vols 1 & 2", Kennicat Pub.1902/1970 ***
    YEATS, W.B.; "Fairy & Folktales of Ireland",
Pan Books 1882 & 1882/1973
    YEATS, W.B. & LADY GREGORY; "Irish Myth,
Legend, & Folklore", Avenel Press 1986
    YOUNG, ELLA; "The Wondersmith and His Son",
David McKay Co. 1927
   You might start with the bibliography in the back of
Pattalee's book.  Also check out Anwyn & Brinley
Rees's "Celtic Heritage", Lewis Spence's "Magick
Arts in Celtic Britain" is also a good one as is his
"Minor Traditions of British Mythology."  Happy Hunting.
-- Raven (JSingle@Music.Lib.MATC.Edu).  [All standard disclaimers apply]"
Branwen Heartfire na Dalriada 

===End of file===

 Cathbad, the Rambling Gael         University of Guelph, in Ontario, Canada
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