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Hittite/Hurrian Mythology REF 1.2

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                         Hittite/Hurrian Mythology REF 1.2
   by Christopher B. Siren last modified Mar. 13th, 1998: added a bunch of
   information from the first half of Hoffner.
   Mar. 29th, 1996: corrected some cross-reference links.
     * I. Who were the 'Hittites'?
     * II. What Deities did they worship?
          + A. Hittite and Hurrian deities.
          + B. Akkadian Imports.
          + C. Demons.
          + D. Mortals.
     * III. What was the Hittite cosmology and how did they perceive the
       structure of the universe?
     * IV. Source material.
I. Who were the 'Hittites'?

   During the second millennium B.C. a group of people known as the Hittites,
   who spoke an Indo-European language, ruled over the 'Land of Hatti', in
   central and eastern Anatolia, that peninsula which is modern Turkey. They
   had displaced the previous occupants, the Hattians (who spoke a
   non-Indo-European language), and ruled from the city of Hattusas near the
   modern Boghazkoy in northern central Turkey, possibly as early as 1900 B.C.
   Much of the Cappadocian plateau was under their control through satellite
   kingdoms before 1800 B.C. and they enjoyed a thriving trade with the
   Assyrians. Around 1800 B.C. Anittas and his father Pitkhanas of Kussara
   sacked several Hittite cities, including Hattusas, though Anittas laid a
   curse upon that city and trade broke off until the founding of the Old
   Kingdom under King Labarnas around 1680 B.C. He and his descendents greatly
   expanded the region of Hittite control, crossing the Taurus mountains and
   waging war on Syria and Assyria. King Mursilis (~1620-1590 B.C.), Labarnas'
   grandson by adoption, brought down the Old Kingdom of Babylon - Hamurabi's
   dynasty. This expanded realm, also stretching to Anatolia's west coast,
   proved to susceptible to internal power struggles. In 1525 B.C., Telepinus,
   last king of the Old Kingdom seized control and sacrificed some of the
   Western districts and all of the territory east of the Taurus mountains in
   favor of a more easily managed kingdom.
   The Hurrians occupied the land between the Hittites and Assyria, having
   descended from the mountains south of the Caspian Sea. They ruled the
   kingdom of Mitanni. In the late 15th century B.C. the Hittite empire's
   beginning is marked by an influx of Hurrian names into the royal family.
   Tudhalyas I (1420 B.C.) reunited Western Anatolia under Hittite rule, and
   retook Allepo but lost the Black Sea coast to the Kaska tribes. After some
   difficulty with the Mittani the Hittites resurged under King Suppilulimas
   around 1344-1322 taking a firmer hold on Syria. With Egypt, they dominated
   the lands of Canaan and the Levant during the 1200's. Their prosperity came
   to a sudden end when the invasion of the Sea Peoples coincided with
   increasing trouble from the Kaskas. While Hittite culture continued through
   about 700 B.C., the Empire was shattered into several kingdoms and
   pressures such as the growing Assyrian Empire helped keep it from uniting
   The Hittites were a patriarchal, highly agricultural society. They had rich
   iron deposits which they mined and traded with the Assyrians. They also
   used it for weaponry and were rather successful in the use of a three-man
   chariot. Through trade and conquest the languages and cultures of their
   neighbors seeped into Hittite society. Babylonian and Hurrian deities were
   worshiped along-side or assimilated with the native Hittite deities. This
   merging of cultures and free use of foreign languages is rather fortuitous.
   Parallel Hittite and Akkadian treaties and similar texts helped in cracking
   the Hittite hieroglyphic code. Unfortunately, while the ability to
   translate Hittite hieroglyphics has improved, the pronunciation of several
   Hittite ideograms, and hence their transcription into English, remains
   elusive. Often, as in the case with the Storm-god, we must resort to a
   descriptive name, or else use the appropriate Hurrian or Akkadian name.
     * One place to find out more about the Hittites is Hatti - Homeland of
       the Hittites
II. What Deities did they worship?

   The Hittites had an abundant number of local cult deities and sets of local
   pantheons. As the government became more centralized, particularly during
   the imperial period around 1400 - 1200 B.C., there were efforts to equate
   many of these local deities and form a state pantheon. Such a pantheon was
   headed by the Weather-god/Storm-god, who also represented the mountains,
   and his consort - usually the earth goddess, who was also attached to the
   waters of rivers and the sea. The Hittites themselves write of 'the
   thousand gods of Hatti', and more than eight-hundred such names have been
   discovered. (Considerably fewer will be dealt with here.) The associated
   myths have both Hittite and Hurrian content, with the origin of many
   suspected to be Hurrian. The Kumarbis-Ullukummis myth is chief among the
   Hurrian tales and the Illuyankas stories and missing god myths of Telipinus
   and the missing Storm-god are thought to be more Hattic. There also exist
   fragments of a Hittite version of the Gilgamesh epic and many Akkadian
   deities were worshiped outright. Doubtless the Hatti left their mark in
   Hittite religion as well.
   You will notice that many of the names carry an optional 's' as a suffix,
   which comes from the nominative case ending for Hittite.
  A. Hittite and Hurrian deities.
          He was the king in heaven in olden days and Anus was the first among
          the gods. Anus served as his cupbearer for 9 years before defeating
          him and dispatching him to under the earth.
   Anu(s) (Akkadian in origin)
          While Alalus was king in heaven, Anus was more powerful. He served
          as Alalus' cup bearer for nine years and then defeated him,
          dispatching him to under the earth. He took his seat on the throne
          and had Kumarbis as his cupbearer. Likewise, after nine years
          Kumarbis rebelled, chased Anus - who fled in the sky like a bird,
          and bit off and swallowed his phallus. In this act Anus had some
          revenge by impregnating Kumarbis with the Storm-god, the Aranzahus
          (Tigris) river, and Tasmisus. He then hid himself in heaven. He
          advised the Storm-god on the places where he might exit Kumarbis.
          After the Storm-god's birth, they plotted to destroy Kumarbis and,
          with his other children, apparently succeeded.
   Kumarbi(s) - 'the father of all gods' according to the Hurrians.
          He is sometimes equated with Enlil and Dagan. His city is Urkis. He
          thinks wise thoughts and carries a staff. He served as Anus's
          cup-bearer for nine years and then rebelled, chased Anus, and bit
          off and swallowed his phallus, thereby becoming impregnated with the
          Storm-god, the Aranzahus (Tigris) river, and Tasmisus. With that
          news, he spat out Aranzahus and Tasmisus of on Mount Kanzuras. The
          Storm-god begins to exit through Kumarbis's 'tarnassus', causing him
          to moan in pain. He asks Ayas to give him his son to devour, which
          he does. Ayas has 'poor' magic worked on him and his 'tarnassus' is
          secured, so the Storm-god exits through his 'good place' instead. He
          is then presumably defeated by the Storm-god, Anus, and his
          During a plot to overthrow the Storm-god, he lay with a Rock as if
          it were a woman. He instructs Imbaluris, his messenger to send a
          message to the Sea, that Kumarbis should remain father of the gods.
          The Sea hosts a feast for him and later Kumarbis' Rock gives birth
          to Ullikummis. Kumarbis announces that his son will defeat the
          Storm-god, his city Kummiya, his brother Tasmisus and the gods from
          the sky. He charges Imbaluris to seek out the Irsirra deities to
          hide Ullikummis from the Sun-god, the Storm-god, and Ishtar.
                He is Kumarbis' messenger. He is sent to warn the Sea that
                Kumarbis' must remain the father of the gods.
                He is Kumarbis' vizier
   Hannahanna(s) (Nintu, Mah) - the mother of all the gods.
          She is associated with Gulses. After Telepinu disappears, the
          Storm-god complains to her. She sends him to search himself and
          when he gives up, she dispatches a bee, charging it to purify the
          god by stinging his hands and feat and wiping his eyes and feet with
          She recommends to the Storm-god that he pay the Sea-god the
          bride-price for the Sea-god's daughter on her wedding to Telipinu.
          Apparently she also disappears in a fit of anger and while she is
          gone, cattle and sheep are stifled and mothers, both human and
          animal take no account of their children. After her anger is
          banished to the Dark Earth, she returns rejoicing. Another meeans of
          banishing her anger is through burning brushwood and allowing the
          vapor to enter her body.
          After Inara consulted with her, she gave her a man and land. Soon
          after, Inara is missing and when Hanna hanna is informed thereof by
          the Storm-god's bee, she apparently begins a search with the help of
          her Female attendant a. She appears to consult with the Sun-god and
          the War-god, but much of the text is missing.
   Upelluri (Ubelluris)
          Similar to Atlas, this giant carries the world on his shoulders. The
          olden gods built the earth and heaven upon him though he did not
          notice, even when those two were separated with a cleaver. On the
          direction of Kumarbis' messenger Imbaluris, the Issira deities place
          Ullikummis on his right shoulder where the child grows. Ea
          interviews him, in search of Ullikummis and Upelluri admits to a
          small pain on his shoulder, although he can't identify which god is
          causing it.
   Storm/Weather-god (Hurrian's Teshub, Taru, Luwian's Tarhun(t) - 'The
          Conqueror'), 'The king of Kummiya', 'King of Heaven, Lord of the
          land of Hatti'.
          He is chief among the gods and his symbol is the bull. As Teshub he
          has been pictured as a bearded man astride two mountains and bearing
          a club. He is a god of battle and victory, especially when the
          battle is with a foreign power. As Taru, he is the consort of
          Wurusemu. He was the child of Anus and Kumarbis - conceived along
          with Tasmisus and the Aranzahus (Tigris) river when Kumarbis bit off
          and swallowed Anus' phallus. He is, however, considered Ea's son in
          the myth of Ullikummis. He is informed by Anus of the possible exits
          from Kumarbis, and tries to exit through Kumarbis's 'tarnassas',
          causing him great pain. With the 'tarnassas' blocked, he exits
          through Kumarbis' 'good place'. He plots with Anus, Tasmisus, and
          Aranzhus to destroy Kumarbis, and apparently succeeds seizing
          kingship in heaven.
          He sent rain after the fallen Moon-god/Kashku when he fell from
          Alerted to the imminent arrival of the Sun-god, who in some myths is
          his son, he has Tasmisus prepare a meal for their guest and listens
          to his report about the sudden appearance of the giant Ullikummis.
          He and Tasmisus then leave the kuntarra and are led to Mount Hazzi
          by his sister, Ishtar, where they behold the monstrous creature. He
          looks upon Kumarbis' son with fear and Ishtar chides him. Later,
          emboldened, he has Tasmisus prepare his bulls and wagon for battle,
          and has him call out the thunderstorms, lightning and rains. Their
          first battle resulted in his incomplete defeat. He dispatches
          Tasmisus to his wife, Hebat, to tell her that he must remain in a
          'lowly place' for a term. When Tasmisus returns, he encourages the
          Storm-god to seek Ea in the city Abzu/Apsu and ask for the 'tablets
          with the words of fate' (Tablets of Destiny? 'me'?). After Ea
          cleaves off Ullukummis' feet, he spurs Tasmisus and the Storm-god on
          to battle the crippled giant. Despite the diorite man's boasting,
          the Storm-god presumably defeats him.
          He fought with the Dragon Illuyankas in Kiskilussa and was defeated.
          He called the gods for aid, asking that Inaras prepare a
          celebration. She does so and when the dragon and his children have
          gorged themselves on her feast, the mortal Hupasiyas binds him with
          a rope. Then the Storm-god, accompanied by the gods, sets upon them
          and destroys them.
          In another version of that myth, he looses his eyes and heart to
          Illuyankas after his first battle. He then marries a poor mortal
          woman and marries their son to Illuyankas daughter. He has the son
          ask for his eyes and heart. With their return, he attacks the dragon
          again. When his son sides with Illuyankas, the Storm-god kills them
          When his son, Telepinus, is missing he despairs and complains to the
          Sun-god and then to Hannahannas, who tells him to search for him
          himself. After searching Telepinus' city he gives up.
          In other versions of this myth, it is the Storm-god who is missing.
          One is almost exactly the same, and in another, he journeys to the
          Dark Earth in his anger, and is returned with the help of his mother
          - here Wuruntemu/Ereshkigal/the Sun-goddess of Arinna.
          He sends Telipinu to recover the Sun-god who had been kidnapped by
          the Sea-god. The Sea-god is so intimidated that he gives Telipinu
          his daughter in marriage but demands a bride-price from the
          Storm-god. After consulting with Hannahanna, he pays the price of a
          thousand sheep and a thousand cattle.
          He notices his daughter, Inara, is missing and sends a bee to
          Hannahanna to have her search for her.
        Seris (Serisu)
                This is one of the bulls sacred to the Storm-god. In
                preparation for battle, the Storm-god has Tasmisus anoint his
                horns with oil and drive him up Mount Imgarra with Tella and
                the battle wagon.
        Tella (Hurris)
                This is another bull sacred to the Storm-god. In preparation
                for battle, the Storm-god has Tasmisus plate his tail with
                gold and drive him up Mount Imgarra with Seris and the battle
        Aranzahas - The Tigris river deified.
                A child of Anus and Kumarbis, he was the brother of the
                Storm-god and Tasmisus, spat out of Kumarbis' mouth onto
                Mount Kanzuras. Later he colludes with Anus and the Storm-god
                to destroy Kumarbis.
                A child of Anus and Kumarbis, he is conceived along with the
                Storm-god and Aranzahus. The brother of the Storm-god and
                Aranzahus, he was spat out of Kumarbis upon Mount Kanzuras.
                Later he colludes with Anus and the Storm-god to destroy
                Kumarbis. He serves as the Storm-god's attendant.
                He spies the Sun-god approaching and informs the Storm-god
                that this visit bodes ill. At the Storm-god's command he has a
                meal set up for their visitor. After the Sun-god's tale, he
                and the Storm-god depart and are met by Ishtar, who takes them
                to Mt. Hazzi near Ugarit, where they can see Ullikummis. The
                Storm-god has him take his bulls up Mt. Imgarra and prepare
                them for battle. He is also ordered to bring forth the storms,
                rains, winds, and lightning. After their defeat, he is
                dispatched by the Storm-god to Hebat, to tell her that he must
                remain in a 'lowly place' for a term. He returns and
                encourages the Storm-god to seek Ea in the city Abzu/Apsu and
                ask for the 'tablets with the words of fate' (Tablets of
                Destiny? 'me'?). After Ea cleaves off Ullukummis' feet, he
                spurs Tasmisus and the Storm-god on to battle the crippled
                He is a warrior god and probably the brother of the Storm-god.
   Hebat (Hurrian name) (Hepit, Hepatu)
          The matronly wife of the Storm-god. She is sometimes depicted
          standing on her sacred animal, the lion. After the Storm-god and
          Astabis' failed attacks on Ullikummis, the giant forced her out of
          her temple, causing her to lose communication with the gods. She
          frets that Ullikummis may have defeated her husband and expresses
          her concern to her servant Takitis, charging him to convene the
          assembly of the gods and bring back word of her husband. Presumably
          she is brought word of his defeat. Tasmisus visits her in the high
          watchtower, telling her that the Storm-god is consigned to a 'lowly
          place' for a length of time. She is the mother of Sharruma.
        Wurusemu, (Wuruntemu?), 'Sun Goddess of Arrina', 'mistress of the
                Hatti lands, the queen of heaven and earth', 'mistress of the
                kings and queens of Hatti, directing the government of the
                King and Queen of Hatti'
                This goddess is later assimilated with Hebat. She made the
                cedar land. She is the primary goddess in Arrina, with Taru as
                her consort. She is a goddess of battle and is associated with
                Hittite military victory. She is the mother of the Storm-god
                of Nerik, and thereby possibly associated with Ereshkigal. She
                aids in returning him from the underworld.
        Sharruma (Hurrian name), 'the calf of Teshub'
                The son of Teshub and Hebat, this god is symbolized by a pair
                of human legs, or a human head on a bull's body. He is later
                identified with the Weather-god of Nerik and Zippalanda.
                He is Hebat's servant. After Hebat was driven from her temple
                he is told of her concern for her husband and charged with
                convening the assembly of the gods and returning with word of
                her husband's fate.
                She is the daughter of the Storm-god and the Sun-goddess of
                Arinna. She has influence with her parents.
                She is the granddaughter of the Storm-god and the Sun-goddess
                of Arinna.
   Telepinu(s) 'the noble god'
          An agricultural god, he is the favorite and firstborn son of the
          Storm-god. He 'harrows and plows. He irrigates the fields and makes
          the crops grow.' (Gurney p. 113) He flies into a rage and storms
          off, losing himself in the steppe and becoming overcome with
          fatigue. With his departure, fertility of the land, crops and herds
          disappears and famine besets man and god. Hannahannas's bee finds
          him, stings his hands and feet, and wipes his eyes and feet with
          wax, purifying him. This further infuriates him, and he wrecks
          further havoc with the rivers and by shattering houses and windows.
          Eventually, the evil and malice is removed through magic by
          Kamrusepas, but not before Telepinus thunders with lightning.
          Telepinus returns home, restoring fertility and tending to the life
          and vitality of the royal family. His prosperity and fertility is
          symbolized by a pole suspending the fleece of a sheep. In other
          versions of this myth, the Storm-god or the Sun-god and several
          other gods are missing instead.
          He is asked by his father to recover the Sun-god from the Sea-god,
          and so intimidates the Sea-god that he is given his daughter as a
   Ullikummi(s), the diorite man
          He is born of Kumarbis and the Rock. This god is made entirely of
          diorite. He was born to be used as a weapon to defeat the
          Storm-godand his allies. Kumarbis had him delivered to the Irsirra
          deities to keep him hidden from the Storm-god, the Sun-god, and
          Ishtar. After the Irsirra deities presented him to Ellil, they
          placed him on the shoulder of Upelluri where he grows an acre in a
          After fifteen days he grows enough so that he stands waist deep in
          the sea when the Sun-god and he notice each other. Alerted by the
          Sun-god, the Storm-god eventually prepares for battle atop Mount
          Imgarra, yet their first battle results in an incomplete victory. He
          drives Hebat from her temple, cutting off her communication with the
          other gods. Astabis leads seventy gods on attack against him,
          attempting to draw up the water from around him, perhaps in order to
          stop his growth. They fall into the sea and he grows to be 9000
          leagues tall and around, shaking the heavens, the earth, pushing up
          the sky, and towering over Kummiya. Ea locates him and cuts off his
          feet with the copper knife that separated the heaven from the earth.
          Despite his wounds he boasts to the Storm-god that he will take the
          kingship of heaven. Presumably, he is none-the-less defeated.
   Sun-god (of Heaven)
          Probably an Akkadian import, this god is one of justice and is
          sometimes the king of all gods. An ally of the Storm-god, he notices
          the giant Ullikummis in the sea and visited the Storm-god, refusing
          to eat until he reports his news. After he has done so, the
          Storm-god proclaims that the food on the table shall become
          pleasant, which it does, and so the Sun-god enjoys his meal and
          returns to his route in heaven.
          When Telepinus disappears, bringing a famine, he arranges a feast,
          but it is ineffective in assuaging their hunger. At the Storm-god's
          complaint, he dispatches an eagle to search for the god, but the
          bird is unsuccessful. After the bee discovers Telepinus, he has man
          perform a ritual. In another version of the missing god myth, he is
          one of the missing gods. He keeps several sheep. At the end of the
          day, he travels through the nether-world.
          He was kidnapped by the Sea-god and released when Telipinu came for
          In a longer version of that story, the Sea-god caught him in a net,
          possibly putting him into a Kukubu-vessel when he fell. During his
          absence, hahhimas (Frost) took hold.
                He is the Sun-god's shepherd.
   Moon-god (Hurrian Kashku)
          He fell upon the 'killamar', the gate complex, from heaven and
          disappeared. Storm-god/Taru rain-stormed after him, frightening him.
          Hapantali went to him and uttered the words of a spell over him.
          While known to bestow ill omens, he can be appeased by sheep
   The Sea, the Waters
          She is told by Imbaluris that 'Kumarbis must remain father of the
          gods!'. Struck with fear by this message, she makes ready here abode
          and prepares to act as hostess for a feast for Kumarbis. This feast
          may have served as a meeting of Mother-goddesses who delivered
          Kumarbis' child by the Rock, Ullikummis.
   The Sea-god
          He quarreled and kidnapped the Sun-god of Heaven. When Telipinu came
          to recover the Sun-god, the Sea-god was so intimidated that he also
          gave him his daughter. he later demanded a bride-price for her of
          the Storm-god, and was eventually given a thousand cattle and a
          thousand sheep. In another version, he caught the Sun-god in a net
          as he fell, and may have sealed him in a Kukubu-vessel, allowing
          Hahhimas (Frost to take hold of most of the other gods.
          He questions the fire in its role in one of Kamrusepa's healing
          Daughter of the Storm-god and goddess of the wild animals of the
          steppe. After the Storm-god's initial defeat by Illuyankas, she
          follows his request to set up a feast. She recruits Hupasiayas of
          Zigaratta, to aid in revenge on Illuyankas, by taking him as a
          lover. She then sets about luring Illuyankas and his children to a
          feast. After the dragon and his children gorge themselves on her
          meal, Hupasiayas binds him with a rope. Then the Storm-god sets upon
          them and defeats them.
          She then gives Hupasiayas a house on a cliff to live in, yet warns
          him not to look out the window, lest he see his wife and children.
          He disobeys her, and seeing his family begs to be allowed to go
          home. Gurney speculates that he was killed for his disobedience.
          She consults with Hannahanna, who promises to give her land and a
          man. She then goes missing and is sought after by her father and
          Hannahanna with her bee.
   Illuyankas - the Dragon.
          He defeated the Storm-god in Kiskilussa. Later he was lured from his
          lair with his children by a well dressed Inaras with a feast. After
          they were too engorged to get into their lair again, the Storm-god,
          accompanied by the other gods, killed him.
          In another version of the myth, he defeated the Storm-god and stole
          his eyes and heart. Later, his daughter married the son of the
          Storm-god. Acting on the Storm-god's instruction, his son asked for
          the eyes and heart. When these were returned to him, the Storm-god
          vanquished Illuyankas, but slew his son as well when the youth sided
          with the dragon.
          The ritual of his defeat was invoked every spring to symbolize the
          earth's rebirth.
          He is a serpent who loved Ishtar.
   Irsirra deities
          These gods who live in the dark earth are charged by Kumarbis
          through Imbaluris to hide Ullikummis from the sky gods, the Sun-god,
          the Storm-god, and Ishtar. They are also charged with placing the
          child on the shoulder of Upelluri. Later they accept the child and
          deliver it to Ellil, before placing it on Upelluri's right shoulder.
          He took his place at the Moon-god's side when he fell from heaven on
          the gate complex and uttered a spell.
   Kamrusepa(s) (Katahziwuri)
          She is the goddess of magic and healing. She witnessed and announced
          the Moon-god's fall from heaven on to the gate complex.
          After Telepinus has been found, yet remains angry, she is set to
          cure him of his temper. She performs an elaborate magical ritual,
          removing his evil and malice.
          In another tablet, she performs the spell of fire, whic removes
          various illnesses, changing them to a mist which ascends to heaven,
          lifted by the Dark Earth. The Sea-god questions the fire on its
   Astabis (Zamama, Akkadian Ninurta)
          He is a Hurrian warrior god. After the Storm-god's first attack on
          Ullikummis is unsuccessful, he leads seventy gods in battle wagons
          on an attack on the diorite giant. They try to draw the water away
          from him, perhaps in order to stop his growth, but they fall from
          the sky and Ullikummis grows even larger, towering over the gate of
          He is a minor god who, properly attended to, removes impotence.
          This god's symbol is the stag. He is associated with rural areas.
          She is the chief goddess of the Neo-Hittites, she became Cybebe to
          the Phrygians and Cybele to the Romans.
          He is a god of pestilence. A festival was held for him every autumn.
          He is a god who can protect travelers, possibly by causing them to
          be invisible.
          He is the chief god of the town of Kastama, held in greater regard
          there than the Storm-god, possibly gaining such influence through
          drawing lots with the other gods.
                She is the wife of Zashapuna.
                She is the concubine of Zashapuna.
          One of the deities who sat under the Hawthorn tree awaiting the
          return of Telipinus.
          One of the deities who sat under the Hawthorn tree awaiting the
          return of Telipinus.
          One of the deities who sat under the Hawthorn tree awaiting the
          return of Telipinu. (S)he? also sat under th ippiyas tree when
          Hannahanna found the hunting bag.
          They were among the deities who sat under the Hawthorn tree awaiting
          the return of Telipinu. In one myth, they and the Mother-goddesses
          are missing.
          One of the deities who sat under the Hawthorn tree awaiting the
          return of Telipinu.
   Tutelary-deity, (Sumerian Lamma)
          One of the deities who sat under the Hawthorn tree awaiting the
          return of Telipinu.
          A deity involved in returning the lost Storm-god of Nerik.
   Hahhimas (Frost)
          When the Sea-god captures the Sun-god, he takes hold of the other
          gods and of the land's plants and animals, paralyzing them. He is
          half-brother to Hasamili's brothers and spares them from his grip.
  B. Akkadian Imports:
          See section A.
   Antu (See Assyro-Babylonian Antu)
          Anu's female counterpart, imported to the Hitties through the
   Ellil (See Assyro-Babylonian Ellil)
          He is presented with Ullikummis by the Irsirra deities and declares
          that the child will bring the mightiest battles and an awesome rival
          to the Storm-god. Later, Ea and presumably the Storm-god present
          before him a case against Kumarbis' for his creation of Ullikummis.
          He counters with Kumarbis' good record of worship and sacrifice and
          is in turn countered with Ea's testimony describing Ullikummis.
   Ninlil (See Assyro-Babylonian Ninlil
          Ellil's wife. She was imported by way of the Hurrians.
   Lelwanis (Lilwani, Ereshkigal, sometimes assimilated with Ishtar), 'Sun of
          the Earth'
          Goddess of the earth and the nether-world, appeasement of her
          through sheep sacrifices helps remove threats from evil omens.
          This goddess is the mother of the Storm-god. She plays a role in
          returning him from the underworld by opening the gates of the Dark
   Ayas (Ea)
          He is the keeper of the 'old tablets with the words of fate'
          (Tablets of Destiny? 'me'?). The Ullikummis myth has him as the
          father of the Storm-god.
          He attends Kumarbis and fetches that god's son to be devoured as a
          means of releaving Kumarbis pains from the Storm-god. He advises
          Kumarbis to have experts work 'poor' magic to aid him in his
          distress, bringing bulls and sacrifices of meal. This magic helps
          secure Kumarbis's 'tarnassus'.
          He is prevailed upon by the Storm-god following his defeat by
          Ullikummis. He and presumably the Storm-god present a case against
          Kumarbis' for his creation of Ullikummis before Ellil. Rebutting
          Ellil's defense that Kumarbis is well behaved regarding worship and
          sacrifices, Ea proclaims that Ullikummis 'will block off heaven and
          the gods holy houses.' He seeks out Upelluri, and after interviewing
          him, locates Ullukummis feet on Upelluri's shoulder. He charges the
          olden gods to deliver the copper knife with which they severed
          heaven from earth, in order to cut through Ullukummis' feet. He then
          spurs Tasmisus and the Storm-god on to fight the crippled giant.
   Tapkina(Hurrian) (Damkina)
          Ea's wife, imported from the Akkadians by way of the Hurrians.
   Shaushka (Hurrian) (Ishtar)
          She takes the form of a winged female standing on a lion.
          She spies her brothers, the Storm-god and Tasmisus, leaving the
          kuntarra following word of the appearance of Ullikummis. She leads
          them by hand, up Mount Hazzi, from which they can view the giant.
          When the Storm-god is vexed and fearful at the site of Kumarbis'
          son, she chides him. Later, she takes up her galgalturi/harp and
          sings to the blind and deaf Ullikummis, but her folly is exposed to
          her by a great wave from the sea, who charges her to seek out her
          brother who is yet to be emboldened to the inevitable battle.
          She was loved by the serpent Hedammu.
                Shaushka's attendant.
                Shaushka's attendant.
  C. Demons
   Various rituals were performed to call upon demons for protection or to
   drive away baneful deities summoned by sorcerers.
          Properly propitiated with ritual, libation, and goat sacrifice, this
          demon drives away evil sickness.
          Properly propitiated with ritual and the sacrifice of a buck, this
          demon staves off sickness and grants long, healthy life.
  D. Mortals
          He is a resident of Ziggaratta. He is recruited by Inaras to aid in
          defeating Illuyankas. He agrees to her plan after elliciting her
          promise to sleep with him. When Illuyankas and his children are
          gorged on Inaras's feast, he ties them up for the Storm-god to kill.
          he is set up in a house by Inaras with the instructions not to look
          out the window while she is away, lest he see his family. He does,
          and begs to go home. Here the text is broken and some researches
          assume that he is killed.
III. Cosmology and the structure of the universe.

   I haven't found as much about this as I would like:
   The olden gods built heaven and earth upon Upelluri. They had a copper
   knife which they used to cleave the heaven from the earth, after which they
   stored it in ancient storehouses and sealed them up - only to open them and
   retrieve it for use on Ullikummis.
   Kuntarra house
          The house of the gods in heaven.
   The Dark Earth, i.e. the Underworld.
          It has an entrance with gates. It holds bronze or iron palhi-vessels
          with lead lids. That which enters them, perishes within and doesn't
          return. Telipinu and Hannahanna's anger is banished there.
IV. Source material:

     * Goetze, Albrecht "Hittite Myths, Epics, and Legends", Ancient Near East
       Texts Relating to the Old Testament, ed. James Pritchard, Princeton
       University Press, Princeton, 1955. This has been my primary source for
       the texts of the Hittite myths and prayers.
     * Gurney, O. R. The Hittites, Penguin Books, New York, 1990. Gurney's
       work is a solid overview of Hittite history, culture, religion, and
     * Hoffner, Harry Hittite Myths, Scholars Press, Atlanta, Georgia, 1990.
       Intended to be a more idiomatic translation, Hoffner's work also
       includes material more recent than Goetz. I am replacing that material
       from Goetz with which this conflicts.
     * S.H.Hooke Middle Eastern Mythology, Penguin Books, New York,1963. Hooke
       takes a comparative and summary approach to Sumerian, Babylonian,
       Canaanite, Hittite, and Hebrew mythological material.
     * Laroche, Emmanuel, articles within Mythologies Volume One, Bonnefoy,
       Yves (compiler), The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1991. This
       handful of topically focused articles provides depth in some areas of
       Hittite and Hurrian religion but lacks an overall picture as Bonnefoy's
       work was designed for an encyclopedic format.
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   been over 77,369 hits here since its creation in March of 1996 with the
   last assessment being on December 1st 2000. Copyright 1996, 1998, 1999.
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