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The Assyro-Babylonian Mythology FAQ version 1.8html

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                The Assyro-Babylonian Mythology FAQ version 1.8html
   by Christopher B. Siren (Nov. 1994)
   last revised (August 12th, 1999)
   changes since last revision:
   August 1999: added clarifying remark to Bahamut answer.
   October 1995: lengthened Bahamut answer; added a couple external links;
   made changes for move to UNH.
   The latest copy of this FAQ should be available via anonymous ftp at: at /pub/usenet/news.answers/assyrbabyl-faq
     * I. Overview (including regional history)
     * II. So these are just like the Sumerian deities right?
     * III. Who were the gods and heroes of the Babylonians?
          + A. The older gods
          + B. The younger Anunnaki and Igigi
          + C. The chthonic gods
          + D. The heroes and monsters
     * IV. What about the Underworld and Heaven and all that?
     * V. Hey! I read that Cthulhu is really some Babylonian or Sumerian god,
       how come he's not there under Kutu?
     * VI. So, in AD&D, Tiamat is this five-headed evil dragon, but they got
       her from the Enuma Elish, right? What about her counterpart, Bahamut?
     * VII. Where did you get this info and where can I find out more?
I. Overview (including regional history)

   First, some definitions: Mesopotamia, in general, refers to the area of the
   Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Assyria, was the northern portion of
   Mesopotamia, who's capital was Ashur (until 883 BCE, when it was moved to
   Calah/Nimrud) and whose reach included the major city of Nineveh (Ninua).
   Sumer refers to the southern delta region, whose primary cities included
   Ur, Uruk, and Eridu. Akkad was a region north of Sumer which included the
   area around modern Baghdad as well as the ancient sites of Babylon, Kish,
   and Nippur.
   The political organization of the region was basically a collection of
   city-states. Sargon of Agade (2371-16 BCE) united the regions of Sumer and
   Akkad. His descendants eventually lost control of the empire due to
   pressures from the Hurrians, the Hittites, and other invaders, not to
   mention internal pressures. In the south Sumer again gained ascendancy,
   dominated by the city-state Ur. Sumer then collapsed under the Amorites
   around 2000 BCE. They established many sub- kingdoms including Assyria and
   Assyria attained a brief period of dominance under Shamshi-Adad (1813-1781
   BCE) but was soon superseded by Babylon under Hammurapi (Hammurabi)
   (1792-50 BCE) who established what once were thought to be the first
   written law codes (more recent discoveries include law codes from a couple
   centuries prior to Hammurapi). The first Babylonian dynasty had begun in
   1894 BCE, coinciding with the Old Babyonian period of literature. It
   collapsed in 1595 BCE when the Hittites sacked its eponymous capital.
   Assyria had been taken over by the Mitanni (a Hurrian speaking kingdom) but
   established its independence in the mid 14th century BCE. Under
   Tukulti-Ninurta I Assyria dominated the entire fertile crescent in the late
   13th century. By the time of Tiglath-Pileser I, about a century later it
   had directed more of its attention westwards towards the Levant in the West
   and lost control of Babylon and the south. Slowly Assyria began to expand
   again, reaching its apex between 750 and 650 BCE under the rulers
   Tiglath-Pileser III, Sargon II, Sennacherib, and Ashuribanipal (668-627
   BCE). The empire collapsed from invaders with Nineveh falling to
   Nabopalasar of Babylon in 612 BCE and the empire dying in 605 BCE.
   Meanwhile, Babylon had been reasserting itself. Nabopalasar had begun the
   Chaldean dynasty during his rule begining in 625 BCE. This period is also
   known as the Neo-Babylonian period although that term also describes the
   language of that era. Under Nabopalasar's son Nebuchadnezzar II, Babylon
   expanded westward, taking Jerusalem in 586 BCE. Babylon fell in the
   mid-540's to Cyrus the Persian whose empire lasted until the late 300's BCE
   when Alexander of Macedon established his empire and renamed the area
   "Mesopotamia". (See also Shawn Bayern's History Babylonia)
II. So these guys were just like the Sumerian Deities right?

   Well some of them were mostly like the Sumerian Deities, but as you might
   expect, they have their own kinks and differences. In general the following
   relationships apply:
       Sumerian name       Babylonian Name

       An                  Anu
       Ki/Ninhursag        Aruru, Mammi
       Enlil               Ellil
       Enki                Ea
       Nanna               Sin
       Inanna              Ishtar
       Utu                 Shamash
       Ninlil              Mullitu, Mylitta

   This is not a cut and dry relation. Sumerian and Babylonian names appear in
   the same Babylonian document, sometimes referring to the same entity. In
   addition, there are numerous local variations of these deities names which,
   in the next section, such 'optional' names appear in parentheses after the
   more prevalent name.
III. Who were the gods and the heroes of the Babylonians then?

  A. The Older (genealogically) Gods:
          "The Epic of Creation (Enuma Elish): Tablet I"
          He is the underworld ocean, and the begetter of the skies and of the
          earth. The father of Lahmu, Lahamu, Anshar and Kishar. He could not
          quell the noise of them or their children. He colluded with his
          vizier Mummu to silence the gods and allow Tiamat to rest, after
          Tiamat rejected the idea. Ea found out about his plans, cast a
          sleeping spell on him and killed him.
          (Dalley pp. 232-235, 318)
          "The Epic of Creation (Enuma Elish): Tablets I-III"
          She is primeval Chaos, bearer of the skies and the earth, mother of
          Lahmu, Lahamu, Anshar, and of Kishar. Traditionally conceived of as
          aserpent or dragon of some sort, this idea does not have any basis
          in the Enuma Elish itself. Within that work her physical description
          includes, a tail, a thigh, "lower parts" (which shake together), a
          belly, an udder, ribs, a neck, a head, a skull, eyes, nostrils, a
          mouth, and lips. She has insides, a heart, arteries, and blood. The
          clamor of the younger gods disturbed her, but she continued to
          indulge them. When her husband Apsu and his vizier Mummu suggested
          that they kill the younger gods, she grew furious, calmed down and
          rejected the plan. Her restless subservient gods goaded her into
          action after Apsu is slain. They prepared to wage war against the
          other gods. As Mother Hubur, the underworld river, who fashions all
          things, she bore giant snakes with venom for blood, and cloaked
          dragons with a godlike radiance yet with a terrible visage, for the
          war. She rallied a horned serpent, a mushussu-dragon, a lahmu-hero,
          a ugallu-demon, a rabid dog, a scorpion-man, umu-demons, a fish-man,
          a bull-man, and eleven others underneath her champion and new lover,
          Qingu. She gave Qingu the Tablet of Destinies to facilitate his
          command and attack.
          (Dalley pp. 231-249)
          "The Epic of Creation (Enuma Elish): Tablets IV-V"
          Marduk came with his host to attack her. Qingu's strategy initially
          confuses him, and Tiamat tried to enspell him, hurling jibes at him.
          She was rebuffed and incited into single combat with Marduk. She
          continued to cast her spell and Marduk nets her, and throws a wind
          at her. She tried to swallow it and was undone - distended, shot,
          sliced in two and cut in the heart. Her crushed skull heralded her
          death, and half of her body was used to roof up the sky. Her eyes
          became the sources of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
          (Dalley pp. 249-257)
   Lahmu and Lahamu
          - 'the hairy one' or 'muddy' they have three pairs of curls, and are
          naked except for a triple sash. They were the first children of
          Tiamat and Apsu. Kappa was sent to fetch them by Anshar, to help
          send off Marduk on his fight with Tiamat and be rallied to his side.
          They complied and helped find a princely shrine for Marduk
          - 'whole sky' He is the father of Anu and the child of Tiamat and
          Apsu. He is often paired with Kishara, and his qualities were
          assimilated with Ashur. When Ea learned of Tiamat's planned war,
          Anshar tried to stir him into attacking her first, but was rebuffed.
          He turned to Anu and sent him on a peace mission to Tiamat, but Anu
          returned unsuccessful. An assembly was convened and Marduk came
          forth at Ea's urging, promising to deliver Tiamat's defeated body to
          Anshar's feet. He required of the assembly a promise that he would
          be given the leadership of the pantheon after he is victorious. He
          had Kappa gather Lahmu, Lahamu, and the other gods together to send
          off Marduk on his fight and rally them to his side. When they arrive
          they help find a princely shrine for Marduk.
          - 'whole earth' , She is the mother of Anu and the child of Tiamat
          and Apsu.
          - Sumerian for "heaven", a sky god, father and king of the gods. He
          is the son of Anshar and Kishar. He lives in the third heaven. The
          Eanna in Uruk was dedicated both to him and consort. His first
          consort was Antu. They produced the Anunnaki - the underworld gods,
          and the utukki - the seven evil demons. His second consort was
          Innina (Ishtar). He is a god of monarchs and is not friendly to the
          common people. He is a "King of the Igigi". He is assigned the sky
          as his domain in 'Atrahasis'. His 'kishru's (shooting stars) have
          awesome strength. He has the ability that anything he puts into
          words, becomes reality. He is Niudimmud's (Ea's) father.
          He calls Dumuzi and Gizzida speak on Adapa's behalf.
          He agrees to send the Bull of Heaven after Gilgamesh on Ishtar's
          behalf, if she has made sure that the people of Uruk are properly
          provisioned for seven years. He decrees that either Gilgamesh or
          Enkidu must die for the slaying of Humbaba and the Bull of Heaven.
          He sends Kakka to Kurnugi to tell Ereshkigal to send a messenger to
          receive a gift from him.
          When Anzu stole the Tablet of Destinies from Ellil, he called for
          one of the gods to slay Anzu and thereby greatly increase his
          reputation. He gave Marduk the four winds to play with. He made a
          whirlwind and a flood wave and stirred up Tiamat on purpose. When
          Tiamat's retaliation for Apsu's death was discovered, Anshar sent
          him on a peace mission to her, but he returned unsuccessfully. He
          helps form a princely shrine for Marduk prior to his battle with
          Tiamat, and gives him the Anu-power of decreeing fates, such that
          his word is law.
          He and Earth father the Sebitti. He gives them fearsome fates and
          powers and puts them at Erra's command, to aid in killing noisy,
          over-populous people and animals.
          (See also the Sumerian An and the Hittite Anus)
          Symbol: sacred shine surmounted by the divine horned cap.
          Sacred number: 60
          Astrological region: heavenly equator
          Sacred animal: the heavenly Bull
          - Sumerian for "the earth", she is a colorless being who was the
          first consort of Anu. They produced the Anunnaki - the underworld
          gods, and the utukki - the seven evil demons. She was replaced by
          Isthar (Inanna) who is sometimes her daughter.
   Aruru (Ninmah, Nintu, Ninhursaga, Belet-ili, Mami)
          -She is the mother goddess and was responsible for the creation of
          man with the help of Enlil or Enki. She is also called the womb
          goddess, and midwife of the gods. On Ea's advice, she acted on his
          direction and mixed clay with the blood of the god Geshtu-e, in
          order to shape and birth seven men and seven women. These people
          would bear the workload of the Igigi. She also added to the creation
          of Gilgamesh, and, at Anu's command, made Enkidu in Anu's image by
          pinching off a piece of clay, throwing it into the wilderness, and
          birthing him there. Ea called her to offer her beloved Ninurta as
          the one who should hunt Anzu. She does so. (See also the Hittite
          - the maker or mother of fate.
          - one of "the pure goddesses", Ea's mother, associated with fresh
  B. The Anunnaki, Igigi, and the Younger Gods
   Ellil (Enlil) - Sumerian for "wind/storm-god".
          Initially the leader of the pantheon, he has since relinquished his
          spot to Anu. Possible slayer of Enmesharra and avenger of his father
          Anu. His role in this was upplanted by Marduk by the Babylonians. He
          is a short-tempered god who was responsible for the great flood. He
          is the creator of mankind. He is thought to favor and help those in
          need. He guards the "tablets of destiny", which allow him to
          determines the fate of all things animate or inanimate. They was
          once stolen from him by a Zu, a storm- bird (a bird with some human
          qualities). They were recovered and Zu faced judgment by Ellil. His
          consort is Ninlil, his chief-minister is Nusku. He was also god of
          the lands and of the earth. He is a "King of the Anunnaki". He was
          their counselor warrior. He and his people receive the earth in
          'Atrahasis'. His temple is Duranki.
          When the Igigi rebelled against him, and surrounded his house and
          called for Anu. After man was created in response to the Igigi's
          grievances, he grew weary of their noise and released several
          disasters upon them, after each one, man recovered and then he
          released a new one. The disasters included disease, flood, drought,
          and the great flood. He appointed Humbaba to guard the cedar forest
          and terrify mankind. He decreed that Enkidu must die for the slaying
          of the Bull of Heaven and Humbaba. He does not answer Gilgamesh's
          plea to restore Enkidu to life. He found a throne for Etana to rule
          from in Kish. He appointed Anzu as the guardian of his bath chamber,
          but while bathing, Anzu stole from him the Tablet of Destinies, and
          his Ellil-power. Ninurta, with Ea's advise and Belet-ili's urgings
          slew Anzu and recovered the Tablet of Destinies. (See also the
          Hittite Ellil)
          Symbol: Seven small circles representing the Pleiades.
          Sacred number: 50
          Astrological region: north of "the way of Anu" ie. 12 degrees north
          of the equator.
   Ea (Enki, Nudimmud)
          - god of the waters. He is in charge of the bolt which bars the sea.
          He knows everything. He is the "Lord of Wisdom" and "Lord of
          Incantations". When he speaks, of a thing, it will be made. He is
          the son of Anu, but sometimes he is the son of Anshar. Dumkina is
          his consort. He created Zaltu as a complement to Ishtar. He
          discovered the plot of Apsu and Mummu, put Apsu under a sleeping
          spell, and slew him and put Mummu into a daze, tied him up, and slew
          him. He then named his quarters Apsu, the underworld ocean that
          supports the world. He and Damkina produced Bel and Marduk. (Bel is
          likely to be another name for Marduk.)
          He learned that Tiamat was planning a war of revenge against the
          gods. His father Anshar tries to spur him into making the first
          attack against Tiamat, but Ea rebuffs him. When Anu's peace mission
          fails, he urges Marduk into action.
          He suggests the method of creating man, in response to the heavy
          workload of the Igigi. As mankind's patron, he is the instructor of
          all crafts, writing, building, farming, and magic. He advises
          mankind when other gods would do them harm. He granted Adapa
          understanding, to teach mankind. When Adapa used this knowledge to
          break the wing of the South Wind, he cursed him and told him to
          complain of Dumuzi and Gizzida's absence to Anu. While in Anu's
          court, he advises Adapa not to eat the bread of eternal life (lest
          he forfeit his life on earth). He refuses to flood mankind for
          Ellil. Eventually he accedes, but only after advising Atrahasis to
          build a boat in which to weather the flood.
          He tells Nergal to allow Enkidu's spirit to visit with Gilgamesh.
          When Ea is informed of Ishtar's imprisonment in the Underworld, he
          creates 'His appearance is bright' to stand at Ereshkigal's gate and
          mellow her mood and have her swear an oath by the great gods. He
          instructs Nergal on how to build the gift throne for Ereshkigal, and
          hides him with spring water to hide him from Namtar after he
          returned from the underworld.
          When Anu and the gods could not locate a volunteer to kill Anzu, he
          told the Igiggi that he would pick one. He instructs Belet-ili/Mami
          to send Ninurta to slay Anzu and, through Sharur advises Ninurta on
          how to defeat the creature. (See also the Canaanite Heyan aka
          Kothar-u-Khasis and the Hittite Ayas)
          Symbol: Ram's head; goat-fish (a goat's head on a fish's body)
          Sacred number: 40
          Astrological region: 12 degrees south in the sky (includes Pisces
          and Aquarius)
          - the craftsman god. He is attendant to Ea and Apsu's vizier. He is
          very fond of Apsu and colludes with him to disperse the younger gods
          when they disturb Tiamat, even after Tiamat rejects the plan. Ea
          found out about his plan, enspelled him and tied him up.
   Qingu (older spelling - Kingu)
          - Tiamat's battle leader and second husband/lover after Apsu. He is
          promoted and enhanced to a leading position from among the ranks.
          Tiamat places the Tablet of Destinies in his possession, giving him
          the Anu-power, such that his word is law and affects reality. He
          gives his army fire-quenching breath and paralyzing venom. His
          battle strategy initially confuses Marduk. He is defeated by Marduk
          and counted among the dead gods. For his part in the war he was made
          by Marduk to provide the blood for the creation of man - filling the
          role that Geshtu-e takes in other versions of the creation of man
   Sin (Nannar)
          - moon god, son of Enlil. He has a beard of Lapis Lazuli and rides a
          winged bull. His consort is Ningal. He is the father of Shamash. He
          does not answer Gilgamesh's plea to restore Enkidu to life.
          Symbol: Crescent
          Sacred number: 30
          Sphere of influence: the moon, calendars, vegetation, cattle
          - the consort of Sin, the mother of Shamash
   Ishtar (Ishhara, Irnini, Inanna)
   She is Anu's second consort, daughter of Anu and Antum, (sometimes daughter
   of Sin), and sometimes the sister of Ereshkigal. She is the goddess of
   love, procreation, and war. She is armed with a quiver and bow. Her temples
   have special prostitutes of both genders. She is often accompanied by a
   lion, and sometimes rides it. The Eanna in Uruk is dedicated both to her
   and Anu. As Irnini, she has a parakku (throne-base) at the cedar mountain.
   "The Descent of Ishtar to the Underworld"
   She determines to go to the Underworld. She threatened to smash the gate
   and raise the dead so that they would eat and outnumber the living unless
   the gatekeeper would open it for her. She holds the great keppu-toy (a
   whipping top). She is allowed in by the gate keeper, who takes her through
   seven gates to Ereshkigal's realm. By Ereshkigal's rites, she is stripped
   of items of clothing as she passes through each of the gates: first her
   crown, then her earrings, then her necklace, then her tudditu (breast
   pins), then her belt of birthstones, then her wrist and ankle bangles, and
   finally her garment. While in the underworld, no creatures engaged in acts
   of procreation. She was kept in Egalgina and brought forth by Namtar after
   being sprinkled with the water of life, and after 'His appearance is
   bright' has been cursed. She is led back out through the gates, given back
   her accouterments, and released in exchange for Dumuzi (Tammuz).
   Cylinder Seal of Ishtar (Image from the Oriental Institute at U. Chicago)
          "The Epic of Gilgamesh"
          She loved Tammuz in her youth, although he spends half the year in
          the nether world wailing. She loved a lion, a stallion, a shepherd,
          all of whom she required great sacrifice from and abandoned. She
          loved Ishullanu, a gardener who offered her fruit, but was taken
          aback when she revealed herself to him, so she turned him into a
          After Gilgamesh cleans himself up, following his defeat of Humbaba,
          she asks him to be her lover and husband, and offers him many gifts
          and the homage of earthly rulers and kingdoms. She is rejected, both
          because of her godly nature, and as a fair-weather lover. Ishtar
          asks Anu to send the Bull of Heaven to kill Gilgamesh, and he
          (See also the Hittite Shaushka and the Canaanite Astarte and Anat)
          Symbol: an eight or sixteen-pointed star
          Sacred number: 15
          Astrological region: Dibalt (Venus) and the Bowstar (Sirius)
          Sacred animal: lion, (dragon)
          - the barmaid, a manifestation of Ishtar who dwells at the lip of
          the sea, beyond which is the Land of Life, where Utnapishtim lives.
          She speaks with Gilgamesh. She wears a veil.
   Shamash (Babbar, Utu)
          Shamash is the sun god, the son of Sin and Ningal. He rises from the
          mountains with rays out of his shoulders. He enters and exits the
          underworld through a set of gates in the mountain (exits from Mt.
          Mashu, "Gilgamesh IX ii") guarded by scorpion-people. He travels
          both on foot and in a chariot, pulled by fiery mules. He upholds
          truth, and justice. He is a lawgiver and informs oracles. Nergal is
          a corrupt aspect of his nature.
          In Kish, the eagle and the serpent swore an oath to Shamash that
          they would not overstep the limits of Shamash. The eagle broke the
          oath and ate the eggs of the serpent. Shamash, 'whose net is as wide
          as earth', told the serpent how to serve the eagle justice. The
          serpent lured the eagle with a bull carcass and captured him. The
          eagle requested to be spared and the serpent refused, saying that
          Shamash's punishment would fall on him if he did not carry it out.
          He cut the eagle's wings and left him to die in a pit. The eagle
          prayed to Shamash for mercy, and Shamash refused to help personally,
          but sent Etana to help the eagle. He agreed to help Etana's
          infertility problem if Etana would help the eagle.
          "Epic of Gilgamesh"
          He loves Gilgamesh, hates evil and instigates Gilgamesh's quest
          against Humbaba, guiding him and receiving prayers from him along
          the way. He tries to intercede to Ellil on Enkidu's behalf, but is
          unsuccessful. He rebukes Enkidu for cursing the Stalker and the
          temple prostitute for bringing him out of the wild.
          See also the Hittite Sun-god and the Canaanite Shapshu.
          Symbol: Solar disk with a four point star inside with rays coming
          from between the points. A winged disk.
          Sacred Number: 20
          - Shamash's consort
          Anshar and Anu's vizier, who is sent to Kurnugi to deliver
          Ereshkigal the message that Anu wishes to deliver a gift to her via
          one of her messengers. Anshar sends him to round up Lahmu and Lahamu
          to send off Marduk for his battle with Tiamat and rally them to his
          Ellil's consort. (see also Sumerian Ninlil.)
          the god of fire and Ellil's vizier.
          - the god of fire, Anunitu (Antu)'s son. He despairs and will not
          attack Anzu after Anzu has stolen the Tablet of Destinies from
   Ishum (Hendursanga - 'lofty mace')
          - He is the god of fire, and is adept at using weapons. He lights
          the way in front of Erra and the Sebitti. He advises Erra against
          attacking Marduk or his people in Babylon. When Erra takes Marduk's
          seat, Ishum persuades him against destroying Babylon, finally
          appeasing him by promising that the other gods would acknowledge
          themselves as his servants.
          - Ellil's doorkeeper in Nippur.
          - Ea's lover, mother of Bel and Marduk (note Bel is likely to be
          another title for Marduk).
   Nash (Nanshe)
          - one of "the pure goddesses", Ea's daughter. Her cult center is
          Sirara near Lagash.
          - "strife", goddess created by Ea to complement Ishtar.
   Ninurta (shares some characteristics with Ningrisu)
          - Chamberlain of the Anunnaki, the war god, the champion of the
          land. He is the child of Ellil and Mami. He was born in Ekur,
          Ellil's temple in Ekur. He is responsible for some small scale
          irrigation. He has a bow and arrow, sometimes they are poisoned. He
          also carries the mace, Sharur, which can act as a messenger between
          Ninurta and other beings (notably Ea). He can marshal the Seven of
          Battle, who can generate whirlwinds.
          He bound the Mountain of Stones in his fury, conquered the Anzu with
          his weapon and slew the bull-man inside the Sea. (Dalley p. 204).
          After the Tablet of Destinies was stolen, Belit-ili, at Ea's advice,
          instructed him to kill Anzu. Initially his assault was futile, but
          Sharur relayed advise from Ea to him, which, when it was carried out
          allowed him to slay Anzu in a great onslaught. He recovered the
          Tablet of Destinies for Ellil. Nissaba performs a purification
          ceremony on him and he receives the following new names and shrines:
          Duku - 'holy mound' in Sumerian, Hurabtil - an Elamite god,
          Shushinak - patron god of the Elamite city Susa, Lord of the Secret,
          Pabilsag - god of the antediluvian city Larak, Nin-Azu - god of
          Eshunna, Ishtaran - god of Der, Zababa -warrior god of Kish,
          Lugalbanda - Gilgamesh's father, Lugal-Marada - patron god of
          Marad, Warrior Tishpak - similar to Nin- Azu, Warrior of Uruk, Lord
          of the Boundary-Arrow, Panigara - a warrior god, and Papsukkal -
          vizier of the great gods.
          - 'the great wild cow', the great queen, Gilgamesh's mother and
          Lugalbanda's mate. She is wise, 'knows everything' and interprets
          Gilgamesh's dreams. She offers incense and drink to Shamash and
          questions his decision to send Gilgamesh against Humbaba. When doing
          so, she wears a circlet on her head and an ornament on her breast.
          She adopts Enkidu prior to the quest against Humbaba.
          - son of Ea and Dumkina. He supplants the other Babylonian deities
          to become the central figure of their pantheon. He is a "King of the
          Igigi" He often works with and asks questions of his father. He has
          fifty names many of which are those of other deities whose
          attributes he usurped. He was of proud form and piercing stare, born
          mature, powerful, and perfect and superior. He has four eyes, four
          ears, and emits fire from his mouth when he speaks. He is also
          gifted in magic.
          Anu gave him the four winds to play with. When Anu's peace mission
          to Tiamat fails, Ea urges him into action. He goes before Anshar and
          the divine assembly and declares that he will defeat Tiamat and lay
          her head at his feet, but that the assembly must promise that he
          should be the one to fix fates and more or less assume the role of
          the leader of the pantheon. Anshar, Lahamu, and Anu find him a
          shrine and Anu instills upon him the Anu-power in which, his word
          decrees fate. He is proclaimed king and invested with the scepter,
          throne, and staff-of- office. He is given an unfaceable weapon, the
          flood-weapon. He takes a bow and arrow and mace. He puts lightning
          in front of him, marshals his winds, makes a net to encircle Tiamat,
          fills his body with flame. He rides his storm-chariot driven by
          Slayer, Pitiless, Racer, and Flyer, poison-toothed, tireless steeds.
          He had a spell on his lips and an anti- toxin in his hand. He led
          the gods to battle. (P.251-252 Dalley) Qingu's strategy confused
          him. Tiamat tried to enspell him and wheedled at him. Marduk
          reproaches her and calls her out for single combat. She looses her
          temper and they fight. He unleashes his weapons at her, distended
          her body with winds, shot her in the belly with an arrow, split her
          in two and slit her heart. He defeats the rest of her forces and
          retrieves the Tablet of Destinies.
          He smashed Tiamat's skull to herald her death and made half of her
          body the roof of the sky. He leveled Apsu, measured it and
          established numerous shrines for many of the gods. He set up stands
          for the gods, constructed the heavens and regulated the year, giving
          Shamash some dominion over the months and the year. He made the
          Tigris and Euphrates rivers from Tiamat's eyes and made mountains
          from her udders. He smashed the weapons of Tiamat's army and put
          images of them at the gates to the underworld. He set up his temple
          at Esharra and his seat in Babylon. The gods honored him as king. He
          put blood and bones together as and made early man to bear the work
          of the gods, as in Atrahasis. For Qingu's part in the war he was
          made to provide the blood for the creation of man. He divided the
          Anunnaki and placed 300 to guard the sky, and six hundred to dwell
          in heaven and earth. He had them create Babylon building the
          Esagalia temple and a high ziggurat. Anshar gave him many new names:
          1. Asarluhi, 2. Marduk, 3. The Son, The Majesty of the Gods, 4.
          Marukka, 5. Mershakushu, 6. Lugal-dimmer-ankia (King of heaven and
          earth), 7. Bel, 8. Nari-lugal-dimmer-ankia, 9. Asarluhi, 10.
          Namtila, 11. Namru, 12. 'Asare, 13. Asar-alim, 14. Asar-alim-nuna,
          15. Tutu, 16. Zi-ukkina, 17. Ziku, 18. Agaku, 19. Shazu, 20. Zisi,
          21. Suhrim, 22. Suhgurim, 23. Zahrim, 24. Zahgurim, 25. Enbilulu,
          26. Epadun, 27. Gugal, 28. Hegal, 29. Sirsir, 30. Malah, 31. Gil,
          32. Gilima, 33. Agilima, 34. Zulum, 35. Mummu, 36. Zulum-ummu, 37.
          Gizh- numun-ab, 38. Lugal-ab-dubur, 39. Pagal-guena, 40.
          Lugal-Durmah, 41. Aranuna, 42. Dumu-duku, 43. Lugal-duku, 44.
          Lugal-shuanna, 45. Iruga, 46. Irqingu, 47. Kinma, 48. Kinma, 49.
          E-sizkur, 50. Addu, 51. Asharu, 52. Neberu, 53. Enkukur. He becomes
          a firm lawgiver and judge who, when angered is not stoppable.
          Later he becomes somewhat negligent and Erra challenges him by
          preparing to attack his people in Babylon. He responds to the
          challenge by saying that he already killed most of the people in the
          flood and would not do so again. He also states that no- one would
          be in control of things if he got off of his throne to work up a
          flood, to which Erra volunteers to run things from Marduk's throne.
   Bel (Canaanite Baal)
          Cleverest of the clever and sage of the gods, he is the child of Ea
          and Dumkina. This name (meaning 'lord') is most likely referring to
   Ashur (A-sir, Arusar, A-shar, Assur)
          god of Assyria and war. He is a "King of the Igigi"
          Symbol: winged disk enclosing upper body, while he shoots an arrow.
          - Shamash's servant.
          - vizier of the Great Gods, son of Sin. While Ishtar was in the
          Underworld, he became gloomy and informed Sin and Ea of this plight.
          - the weather god's servant.
   Adad (the Canaanite Hadad, the Sumerian Ishkur, the Hurrian Teshub, the
          Canaanite/Egyptian Resheph, Rimmon)
          a storm god, Anu's son. He holds a lightning bolt in his right hand
          and an axe in his left. He is partially responsible for the flood.
          He despairs and will not attack Anzu after Anzu has stolen the
          Tablet of Destinies from Ellil.
          Sacred number: 6
          Sacred animal: Bull
          - Anu and Ishtar's son. He despairs and will not attack Anzu after
          Anzu has stolen the Tablet of Destinies from Ellil.
          - the carpenter god. He carries the pure axe of the sun.
          - creator of god and man, goldsmith god.
          - 'lord strong-arm' patron god of smiths. He chews copper and makes
  C. The Anunnaki and other chthonic deities and demons
   Ereshkigal (Allatu)
          - the supreme goddess of the underworld. Nergal is her consort. She
          is often considered Ishtar's sister. When angered, her face grows
          livid and her lips grow black.
          She doesn't know why Ishtar would visit her, but she allows her in,
          according to the ancient rites. She instructs Namtar to release his
          diseases upon Ishtar. When 'His appearance is bright' tries to get
          her to swear an oath, she curses him. She has Namtar release Ishtar
          in exchange for Dumuzi.
          Anu sends Kakka to her with a message and then sends Nergal to give
          her a throne upon which she is to sit and give judgment. She offers
          Nergal food, drink, a foot bath, and entices him with her body.
          Eventually he succumbs and they sleep with each other for seven
          days. She is enraged when he wishes to leave. She sends Namtar to
          heaven to request that Anu, Ellil, and Ea send Nergal to her as one
          of the few favors she has ever had. If they do not, she will raise
          the dead and they will eat and outnumber the living. Nergal is
          brought back. In some versions of the myth, Nergal takes control of
          Namtar's attendant demons and grabs Ereshkigal by the hair. In this
          position she proposes marriage to him. In both versions they are
          married. (See also Sumerian Ereshkigal and the Hittite Lelwanis)
          tablet-scribe of the underworld. She kneels before Ereshkigal.
          - the Fate-Cutter, Ereshkigal's messenger and vizier, the herald of
          death. He commands sixty diseases, which are grouped by the part of
          the body which they affect. Offerings to him may stave off diseases.
          He takes Ishtar back out of the Underworld at Ereshkigal's command.
          He acts as her messenger to Anu.
          - the cattle god, he resides in the underworld, in Ereshkigal's
   Nergal (Erragal, Erra, Engidudu
          - 'lord who prowls by night') -, the Unsparing, god of the
          underworld, husband of Ereshkigal, lover of Mami. As Erra he is a
          hunter god, a god of war and plague. He is submissive to Ea. He can
          open the doorposts to the underworld to allow the passage of a soul.
          He achieved his post by refusing to stand before an address of
          Namtar. When Ereshkigal called him to be punished, he dragged her
          off of her throne by the hair, and threatened to decapitate her. She
          offered him the position as her consort and he accepted.
          He is an evil aspect of Shamash. He allows Enkidu's spirit to visit
          Gilgamesh at the behest of Ea. He is sometimes the son of Ea. Prior
          to his first journey to the underworld, he builds a chair of fine
          wood under Ea's instruction to give to Ereshkigal as a gift from
          Anu. He is advised not to take part of the food, drink and
          entertainment offered there. He is tempted by Ereshkigal and
          eventually succumbs, sleeping with her for seven days. He then takes
          his leave, angering her. The gatekeeper lets him out and he climbs
          the stairway to heaven. He hides from Namtar in heaven, but is
          discovered and returns to the underworld to marry Ereshkigal. In
          some versions, on the way back to the Underworld, he seizes control
          of Namtar's attendant demons and grabs Ereshkigal by the hair. In
          this position she offers marriage.
          He commands the Sebitti, seven warriors who are also the Pleadies,
          they aid in his killing of noisy, over-populous people and animals.
          He rallies them when he feels the urge for war, and calls Ishum to
          light the way. They prefer to be used in war instead of waiting
          while Erra kills by disease.
          He regards Marduk as having become negligent and prepares to attack
          his people in Babylon. He challenges Marduk in Esagila in
          Shuanna/Babylon. Marduk responds that he already killed most of the
          people in the flood and would not do so again. He also states that
          he could not run the flood without getting off of his throne and
          letting control slip. Erra volunteers to take his seat and control
          things. Marduk takes his vacation and Erra sets about trying to
          destroy Babylon. Ishum intervenes on Babylon's behalf and persuades
          Erra to stop, but not before he promises that the other gods will
          acknowledge themselves as Erra's servants. (See also Sumerian Nergal
          - plague god, underling of Nergal
          - Underworld god
          - a dread female demon also known as 'she who erases'.
          - god of writing and wisdom
          - the guardian of the first gate of the underworld. (Dalley p. 175,
          "Nergal and Ereshkigal"). Also known as Neti to the Sumerians.
          - a guardian of the gate of heaven; a god of the underworld.
   Tammuz (Dumuzi, Adonis)
          the brother and spouse to Ishtar, or the lover of her youth. He is a
          vegetation god. He went into the underworld and was recovered
          through the intervention of Ishtar. He is sometimes the guardian of
          heaven's gates and sometimes a god of the underworld. He is friends
          with Ningizzia. He is exchanged for Ishtar in the Underworld. He
          guards the Gate of Anu with Gizzida.
   Belili (Geshtinanna)
          - Tammuz/Dumuzi's sister, 'the one who always weeps', the wife of
   Gizzida (Gishzida)
          - son of Ninazu, consort of Belili, doorkeeper of Anu.
   Nissaba (Nisaba)
          - cereal grain harvest goddess. Her breast nourishes the fields. Her
          womb gives birth to the vegetation and grain. She has abundant locks
          of hair. She is also a goddess of writing and learned knowledge. She
          performs the purification ceremony on Ninurta after he has slain
          Anzu and is given his additional names and shrines.
   Dagan (Ugaritic for 'grain')
          - chthonic god of fertility and of the Underworld. He is paired with
          Anu as one who acknowledges directives and courses of action put
          forth in front of the assembly of the gods. (See also the Canaanite
          - (means 'pimple') an underworld god. Ellil used him as a messenger
          to Ninurta
          - god of submission
          - boatman to Utnapishtim
          - canal- controller of the Anunnaki.
          - 'ear', god whose blood and intelligence are used by Mami to create
  D. Demigods, heroes, and monsters:
   Adapa (Uan)
          - the first of the seven antediluvian sages who were sent by Ea to
          deliver the arts of civilization to mankind. He was from Eridu. He
          offered food an water to the gods in Eridu. He went out to catch
          fish for the temple of Ea and was caught in a storm. He broke the
          South Wind's wing and was called to be punished. Ea advised him to
          say that he behaved that way on account of Dumuzi's and Gizzida's
          absence from the country. Those gods, who tended Anu's gate, spoke
          in his favor to Anu. He was offered the bread and water of eternal
          life, but Ea advised against his taking it, lest he end his life on
   Atrahasis and Ut-napishtim,
          Like the Sumerian Ziusudra (the Xisuthros of Berossus) or Noah from
          the Pentateuch, were the long-lived survivors of the great flood
          which wiped out the rest of humanity. In Atrahasis' case, Ellil had
          grown tired of the noise that the mass of humanity was making, and
          after a series of disasters failed to eliminate the problem, he had
          Enki release the floodgates to drown them out. Since Enki had a
          hand in creating man, he wanted to preserve his creation, warned
          Atrahasis, and had him build a boat, with which he weathered the
          flood. He also had kept his ear open to Enki during the previous
          disasters and had been able to listen to Enki's advice on how to
          avoid their full effects by making the appropriate offerings to the
          appropriate deities. He lived hundreds of years prior to the flood,
          while Utnapishtim lives forever after the flood.
          Utnapishtim of Shuruppak was the son of Ubaratutu. His flood has no
          reason behind it save the stirrings of the hearts of the Gods. As
          with Atrahasis, Utnapishtim is warned to build an ark by Ea. He is
          also told to abandon riches and possessions and seek life and to
          tell the city elders that he is hated by Enlil and would go to the
          watery Abyss to live with Ea via the ark. He loads gold, silver, and
          the seed of all living creatures into the ark and all of his
          craftsmen's children as well. After Ea advises Enlil on better means
          to control the human population, (predators, famine, and plague),
          Enlil makes Utnapishtim and his wife immortal, like the gods.
          - the human taken to the sky by an eagle. He was the king of Kish.
          Ishtar and the Igigi searched for a king for Kish. Ellil found a
          throne for Etana and they declared him the king. He was pious an
          continued to pray to Shamash, yet he had no son. Shamash told him to
          where to find the eagle with the cut wings, who would find for him
          the plant of birth. He found the eagle, fed it, and taught it to fly
          again. Not being able to find the plant, the eagle had Etana mount
          on his back and they journeyed to Ishtar, mistress of birth. On
          flying up to heaven, Etana grew scared at the height and went down.
          Then after some encouraging dreams tried to ascend to heaven on the
          eagle again. They succeeded. Etana had a son, Balih.
          - a warrior-king and, with Ninsun, the progenitor of Gilgamesh. He
          is worshipped, being Gilgamesh's ancestor, by Gilgamesh as a god.
   Gilgamesh (possibly Bilgamesh) and Enkidu
          "Epic of Gilgamesh: Tablet I"
          The son of the warrior-king Lugalbanda and the wise goddess Ninsun,
          Gilgamesh built the walls of the city Uruk, and the Eanna (house of
          An) temple complex there, dedicated to Ishtar. He is two-thirds
          divine and one-third human. He is tall and a peerless warrior. He is
          the king and shepherd of the people of Uruk, but he was very wild,
          which upset his people, so they called out to Anu. Anu told Aruru to
          make a peer for Gilgamesh, so that they could fight and be kept
          occupied, so she created the wild-man Enkidu. Enkidu terrorizes the
          countryside, and a Stalker, advised by his father, informs
          Gilgamesh. They bring a love-priestess to bait Enkidu. She sleeps
          with him, and educates him about civilization, Gilgamesh and the
          city. Gilgamesh dreams about Enkidu and is anxious to meet him.
          Enkidu comes into the city Gilgamesh is on his way to deflower the
          brides in the city's "bride-house" and the two fight. They are
          evenly matched and become friends.
          "Epic of Gilgamesh: Tablets II - V"
          Gilgamesh decides to strengthen his reputation by taking on Humbaba,
          Enlil's guardian of the forest. Enkidu accompanies Gilgamesh and
          they spend much time in preparation. Eventually they find the
          monster and defeat him.
          "Epic of Gilgamesh: Tablets VI - VIII"
          Ishtar offers to become Gilgamesh's lover, but Gilgamesh insults
          her, saying that she has had many lovers and has not been faithful
          to them. Ishtar asks Anu to send the Bull of Heaven to punish
          Gilgamesh, and he does. Gilgamesh and Enkidu defeat the creature,
          but Enkidu falls ill and dies, presumably because the gods are
          unhappy that he helped kill Humbaba and the Bull of Heaven.
          "Epic of Gilgamesh: Tablets IX - XI"
          Gilgamesh mourns Enkidu and decides to visit Utnapishtim, the only
          human who does not die. He goes to the mountains of Mashu and passes
          by the guardian scorpion-demons into the darkness. It becomes light
          as he enters the Garden of the Gods and he finds Siduri the Barmaid,
          to whom he relates his quest. She sends him to cross the waters of
          death and he confronts the boatman, Urshanabi. They cross and
          Gilgamesh speaks with Utnapishtim. Utnapishtim recounts the tale of
          the flood and challenges Gilgamesh to remain awake for six days and
          seven nights. He fails, but Utnapishtim's wife urges him to reveal
          to Gilgamesh a rejuvinative plant. Gilgamesh takes it, but looses it
          to a serpent before returning to Uruk.
          "Epic of Gilgamesh: Tablet XII"
          Another tablet of the Babylonian Gilgamesh story exists, which is
          similar to the Sumerian version of the tale. Enkidu volunteers to
          enter the underworld to recover Gilgamesh's pukku and mikku (drum
          and throwing stick). Gilgamesh warns him of the proper etiquette for
          the underworld, lest Enkidu be kept there. Enkidu prepares to enter
          the underworld, and is dressed, scented and bade good-bye. The Earth
          seizes him and Gilgamesh weeps. He pleads for Enkidu's sake to
          Enlil, Sin, and finally to Ea. Ea tells Nergal to let Enkidu's ghost
          escape the underworld and tell Gilgamesh about it. He tells
          Gilgamesh of the dead which he has seen there, of those who are
          cared for and those who aren't, indicating the sort of judgment and
          ritual associated with the afterlife and death.
   Humbaba (Huwawa)
          - this monster was appointed by Ellil to guard the cedar forest,
          which is in fact one large tree, the home of the gods, and terrify
          mankind. 'His shout is the storm-flood, his mouth, fire, his breath
          is death.' (Gardner & Maier p. 105) He has seven cloaks with which
          to arm himself. There is a gate and a path in the cedar mountain for
          Humbaba to walk on. Gilgamesh and Enkidu attack. Humbaba pleads for
          mercy, Enkidu argues against mercy, and Enkidu and Gilgamesh
          decapitate him. See also the Sumerian Huwawa.
   The Bull of Heaven
          - this creature was created by Anu to kill Gilgamesh at Ishtar's
          behest. At its snorting, a hole opened up and 200 men fell into it.
          When it fights Enkidu and Gilgamesh, it throws spittle and excrement
          at them. It is killed and set as an offering to Shamash.
          - a demonic being with lion paws and face and eagle talons and
          wings. It was born on the mountain Hehe. Its beak is like a saw, its
          hide as eleven coats of mail. It was very powerful. Ellil appointed
          him to guard his bath chamber. He envied the Ellil-power inherent in
          Ellil's Tablet of Destinies and stole it while Ellil was bathing.
          With the Tablet of Destinies, anything he puts into words becomes
          reality. He takes advandtage of this by causing Ninurta's arrows to
          never reach their target. However, once Ea's advice reached Ninurta,
          Anzu was slain by the hero's onslaught.
   aqrabuamelu (girtablilu)
          - scorpion-man, the guardians of the gates of the underworld. Their
          "terror is awesome" and their "glance is death". They guard the
          passage of Shamash. They appraise Gilgamesh and speak with him.
          - gods (mostly of the earth). The sky Anunnaki set the Igigi to
          digging out the rivers
          - gods (mostly of the heavens) They are given the task of digging
          riverbeds by the Anunnaki. They rebelled against Ellil.
          - the seven warrior gods led by Erra; in the sky they are the
          Pleadies. They were children of Anu and the Earth-mother. Anu gave
          them fearsome and lethal destinies and put them under Erra's
          command. They prefer to exercise there skills instead of letting
          Erra stay in the cities with his diseases.
   Utukki - demons
          Muttabriqu - Flashes of Lightning
          Sarabda - Bailiff
          Rabishu - Croucher
          Tirid - Expulsion
          Idiptu - Wind
          Bennu - Fits
          Sidana - Staggers
          Miqit - Stroke
          Bel Uri - Lord of the Roof
          Umma - Feverhot
          Libu - Scab
          gallu-demons - can frequently alter their form.
          umu-demons - fiercely bare their teeth.
IV. What about the Underworld and Heaven and all that?

   For a more general discussion of this, take a look at the Underworld and
   Cosmology sections in the Sumerian FAQ, for the particulars, see below.
   The Igigi and the Anunnaki met in heaven in Ubshu-ukkinakku, the divine
   assembly hall. The Gilgamesh epic has the gods dwelling in the cedar
   mountain. They had their parakku, throne-bases, there. It was an enormous
   tree at the cedar forest and was guarded by Humbaba. There is a stairway up
   to heaven from the underworld.
   As for the underworld Kurnugi (Sumerian for 'land of no return'). It is
   presided over by Ereshkigal and Nergal. Within the house of Irkalla
   (Nergal), the house of darkness, the house of Ashes, no one ever exits.
   "They live on dust, their food is mud; their clothes are like birds'
   clothes, a garment of wings, and they see no light, living in blackness."
   It is full of dust and mighty kings serve others food. In Ereshkigal's
   court, heroes and priests reside, as well as Sumuqan and Belit-tseri. The
   scorpion-people guard the gates in the mountain to the underworld which
   Shamash uses to enter and exit. There are seven gates, through which one
   must pass. At each gate, an adornment or article of clothing must be
   removed. The gates (gatekeepers?) are named: Nedu, (En)kishar,
   Endashurimma, (E)nuralla, Endukuga/Nerubanda, Endushuba/Eundukuga, and
   Ennugigi. Beyond the gates are twelve double doors, wherein it is dark.
   Siduri waits there by the waters of death, beyond which, is the Land of
   the Living, where Utnapishtim and his wife dwell. Shamash and Utnapishtim's
   boatman, Urshanbi, can cross the waters. Egalginga, the everlasting palace,
   is a place where Ishtar was held.
V. Hey! I read that Cthulhu is really some Babylonian or Sumerian god, how come he's
not there under Kutu?

   I have yet to find any secondary (or for that matter primary) source which
   lists Kutu as a Mesopotamian deity, or for that matter lists any name
   resembling Cthulhu at all. However, having been given a pointer by, I have confirmed that Kutha or Cutch was the cult city
   of Nergal, the Akkadian god of plagues and the underworld (see above) and
   that 'lu' is the Sumerian word for man. So, Kuthalu would mean Kutha-man
   which could conceivably refer to Nergal. As far as I can tell it could mean
   Joe the Butcher or any of his neighbors who happen to live in Kutha just as
   easily. Nergal, of course bears little resemblance to Lovecraft's Cthulhu
   beyond the fact that both can be considered underworld powers. Those
   interested in further discussion about this might wish to contact Dan at
   the above address and they may wish to read alt.horror.cthulhu as well.
VI. So, in AD&D, Tiamat is this five-headed evil dragon, but they got her from the
Enuma Elish, right? What about her counterpart, Bahamut?

   Bahamut, according to Edgerton Sykes' Who's Who of Non-Classical Mythology,
   is "The enormous fish on which stands Kujara, the giant bull, whose back
   supports a rock of ruby, on the top of which stands an angel on whose
   shoulders rests the earth, according to Islamic myth. Our word Behemoth is
   of the same origin." (Sykes, p. 28)
   [Note: Sykes's use of the phrase "Islamic myth" is misleading as this bit
   of cosmology is not considered Islamic doctrine. Bahamut is pre-Islamic,
   most likely Arabic. I don't have a second source for Kujara.]
   Behemoth then, is usually the male counterpart to Leviathan, and is a great
   beast that roams on land. He is sometimes equated with a hippopotamus, and
   is alternately listed in the Old Testament as a creature on the side of God
   and as one over whom God has or will triumph over.
VII. Where did you get this info and where can I find out more?

   Well this FAQ is primarily derived from the following works:
     * Barraclough, Geoffrey (ed.) The Times Consise Atlas of World History,
       Hammond Inc., Maplewood, New Jersey, 1982.
     * Dalley, Stephanie Myths from Mesopotamia, Oxford University Press, New
       York, 1991. This inexpensive volume served as the bible for much of
       this FAQ. It contains translations of the major Akkadian language myths
       with footnotes, brief introductions, and a glossary.
     * Gardner, John & Maier, John Gilgamesh: Translated from the
       Sin-Leqi-Unninni Version, Vintage Books, Random House, New York, 1984.
       A column by column translation with notes and commentary following each
       column, by the late author of Grendel.
     * Hooke, S. H., Babylonian and Assyrian Religion, University of Oklahoma
       Press, Norman Oklahoma, 1963.
     * Kinnier Wilson, J. V., The Rebel Lands : an Investigation Into the
       Origins of Early Mesopotamian Mythology, Cambridge, Cambridge
       University Press, 1979.
     * McCall, Henrietta, Mesopotamian Myths University of Texas Press,
       Austin, 1990. A summary account of Dalley's book with nice pictures
       more cultural context.
     * Oppenheim, A. Leo, Ancient Mesopotamia: Portrait of a Dead
       Civilization, Chicato, The University of Chicago Press, 1977. This is
       the source for the history and culture of the Babylonians and Assyrians
       for the interested lay-person.
     * The New American Bible, Catholic Book Publishing Co., New York, 1970.
   In addition the following books have occasionally proven helpful:
     * Carlyon, Richard, A Guide to the Gods, Quill, William Morrow, New York,
     * Hooke, S. H. Middle Eastern Mythology, Penguin Books, New York, 1963.
       This work covers Sumerian, Babylonian, Canaanite/Ugaritic, Hittite, and
       Hebrew mythologic material in brief and with comparisons.
     * Jacobsen, Thorkild, The Treasures of Darkness, Yale University Press,
       New Haven, 1976. A good alternative to Kramer, Jacobsen explores
       Mesopotamian religious development from early Sumerian times through
       the Babylonian Enuma Elish. Most of the book winds up being on the
     * Pritchard, James B., Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old
       Testament, with Suppliment, Princeton University Press, Princeton,
     * Sykes, Edgerton, Who's Who in Non-Classical Mythology, Oxford
       University Press, New York, 1993.
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   been over 308,214 hits here between its move from MIT in September of 1995
   and its last assessment on December 1st, 2000. Copyright 1994, 1995, 1999.
   It has also received an award.
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Here are the major ARCANE ARCHIVE directories you can visit:
interdisciplinary: geometry, natural proportion, ratio, archaeoastronomy
mysticism: enlightenment, self-realization, trance, meditation, consciousness
occultism: divination, hermeticism, amulets, sigils, magick, witchcraft, spells
religion: buddhism, christianity, hinduism, islam, judaism, taoism, wicca, voodoo
societies and fraternal orders: freemasonry, golden dawn, rosicrucians, etc.


There are thousands of web pages at the ARCANE ARCHIVE. You can use ATOMZ.COM
to search for a single word (like witchcraft, hoodoo, pagan, or magic) or an
exact phrase (like Kwan Yin, golden ratio, or book of shadows):

Search For:
Match:  Any word All words Exact phrase


Southern Spirits: 19th and 20th century accounts of hoodoo, including slave narratives & interviews
Hoodoo in Theory and Practice by cat yronwode: an introduction to African-American rootwork
Lucky W Amulet Archive by cat yronwode: an online museum of worldwide talismans and charms
Sacred Sex: essays and articles on tantra yoga, neo-tantra, karezza, sex magic, and sex worship
Sacred Landscape: essays and articles on archaeoastronomy and sacred geometry
Freemasonry for Women by cat yronwode: a history of mixed-gender Freemasonic lodges
Satan Service Org: an archive presenting the theory, practice, and history of Satanism and Satanists
Lucky Mojo Usenet FAQ Archive: FAQs and REFs for occult and magical usenet newsgroups
Aleister Crowley Text Archive: a multitude of texts by an early 20th century occultist
Lucky Mojo Magic Spells Archives: love spells, money spells, luck spells, protection spells, etc.
      Free Love Spell Archive: love spells, attraction spells, sex magick, romance spells, and lust spells
      Free Money Spell Archive: money spells, prosperity spells, and wealth spells for job and business
      Free Protection Spell Archive: protection spells against witchcraft, jinxes, hexes, and the evil eye
      Free Gambling Luck Spell Archive: lucky gambling spells for the lottery, casinos, and races